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Languages of Indonesia (Maluku)

See language map.
Indonesia (Maluku). 2,549,454 (2000 census). Information mainly from K. Whinnom 1956; K. Polman 1981; J. Collins 1983; C. and B. D. Grimes 1983; B. D. Grimes 1994; C. Grimes 1995, 2000; E. Travis 1986; R. Bolton 1989, 1990; P. Taylor 1991; M. Taber 1993. The number of languages listed for Indonesia (Maluku) is 132. Of those, 129 are living languages and 3 are extinct.

Living languages

Alune

[alp] 17,243 (2000 WCD). 5 villages in Seram Barat District, and 22 villages in Kairatu and Taniwel districts, west Seram, central Maluku. 27 villages total. Alternate names: Sapalewa, Patasiwa Alfoeren.  Dialects: Kairatu, Central West Alune (Niniari-Piru-Riring-Lumoli), South Alune (Rambatu-Manussa-Rumberu), North Coastal Alune (Nikulkan-Murnaten-Wakolo), Central East Alune (Buriah-Weth-Laturake). Rambatu dialect is reported to be prestigious. Kawe may be a dialect. Related to Nakaela and Lisabata-Nuniali. Lexical similarity 77% to 91% among dialects, 64% with Lisabata-Nuniali, 63% with Hulung and Naka'ela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai 
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Amahai

[amq] 50 (1987 SIL). Central Maluku, southwest Seram, 4 villages near Masohi. Alternate names: Amahei.  Dialects: Makariki, Rutah, Soahuku. Language cluster with Iha and Kaibobo. Also related to Elpaputih and Nusa Laut. Lexical similarity 87% between the villages of Makariki and Rutah; probably two languages, 59% to 69% with Saparua, 59% with Kamarian, 58% with Kaibobo, 52% with Piru, Luhu, and Hulung, 50% with Alune, 49% with Naka'ela, 47% with Lisabata-Nuniali and South Wemale, 45% with North Wemale and Nuaulu, 44% with Buano and Saleman.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi  Nearly extinct.
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Ambelau

[amv] 5,700 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,700. Ambelau Island off the southeastern coast of Buru Island. Wae Tawa village on the coast of Buru, opposite Ambelau. 8 villages. Central Maluku. Alternate names: Amblau.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Buru.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Ambelau 
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Aputai

[apx] 150 (1990 Hinton). Wetar Island coast, Ilputih village, south central Wetar coast, and Lurang village, north central Wetar coast, southwest Maluku. Alternate names: Ilputih, Opotai, Tutunohan.  Dialects: Ilputih, Lurang, Welemur. Lexical similarity 79% with Perai, 74% with Tugun, 69% with Ili'uun, 57% with Talur. Lexical similarity 93% among dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Wetar 
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Asilulu

[asl] 8,756 (1987 SIL). Asilulu, Ureng, Negeri Lima villages, northwest Ambon Island, and some families in villages on the south coast of the Hoamoal Peninsula in West Seram. Spoken as second language in northwest Ambon, north and west Seram, Manipa, Boano, Kelang islands. Dialects: Asilulu, Ureng, Negeri Lima (Lima, Henalima). Lexical similarity 88% between Asilulu and Negeri Lima, 78% to 82% with Hila-Kaitetu, 72% to 73% with the Wakal dialect of Hitu, 67% to 72% with Larike-Wakasihu, 71% to 73% with Luhu on Seram.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu 
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Babar, North

[bcd] 1,500 (1989 SIL). North Babar Islands, east of Timor, south Maluku. 6 villages. Dialects: Reported dialect variation.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North 
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Babar, Southeast

[vbb] 3,325 (1989 SIL). Southeast Babar Island, south Maluku. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar 
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Banda

[bnd] 3,000 (1987 SIL). West and northeastern side of Kei Besar Island in Kei Islands, villages of Banda-Eli and Banda-Elat, south Maluku. There may be a third village. The people originally came from the Banda Islands, but the language is no longer spoken there. Dialects: Eli, Elat. Different from other languages of south Maluku.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser 
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Barakai

[baj] 4,300 (1995 SIL). Barakai Island, southeast Aru Islands; 4 villages on Barakai Island (Longgar, Apara, Bemun, and Mesiang) and one on Gomo-Gomo Island northeast of Barakai, south Maluku. Alternate names: Workai.  Dialects: Barakai, Mesiang. Close to Karey. Lexical similarity 70% with Batuley.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Bati

[bvt] 3,500 (1989 Loski). Eastern Seram Island along the coast between Kian Darat and Keleser, and in the interior. Alternate names: Gah.  Dialects: Related to Geser and Watubela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom 
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Batuley

[bay] 3,840 (1995 SIL). 7 villages in Aru on small islands off the east coast of Wokam Island, south Maluku. Alternate names: Watulai, Gwataley.  Dialects: Fairly closely related to Kompane to the north and Lola to the south, slightly more distant from Dobel. Lexical similarity 70% with Barakai and Karey, 81% with Mariri.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Benggoi

[bgy] 350 (1989 SIL). North coast, Werinama and Bula districts, east Seram, central Maluku, 3 villages (Benggoi, Balakeo, Lesa). Alternate names: Bengoi, Kobi-Benggoi, Uhei-Kaclakin, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei-Kahlakim, Isal.  Dialects: Lesa, Benggoi, Balakeo. Lexical similarity 70% among 'dialects'; 54% to 66% with Liana-Seti, 46% to 50% with Salas Gunung, 32% to 46% with Manusela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti 
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Boano

[bzn] 3,240 (1982). Boano Island west of Seram, mainly in North Buano village, central Maluku. Alternate names: Buano.  Dialects: Related to Larike-Wakasihu. Lexical similarity 60% with Luhu, 61% with Lisabata-Nuniali (closest).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal, East 
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Bobot

[bty] 4,500 (1989 SIL). Southeast Seram, Werinama District, from the village of Atiahu to Kota Baru, and Tunsai village in the Liana area, central Maluku. Alternate names: Werinama, Hatumeten, Atiahu, Ahtiago, Ntau.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 44% with Sepa and Teluti, 42% with Atamanu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Bobot 
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Buli

[bzq] 2,524 (2000 WCD). North Maluku, central Halmahera, east coast, three villages. Dialects: Buli, Wayamli (Wajamli, Jawanli).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast 
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Buru

[mhs] 32,980 in Indonesia (1989 SIL). Population includes 6,622 Wae Sama, 9,600 Masarete, 14,258 Rana, 500 Fogi, and 2,000 in Ambon. South, southeast, and central Buru Island, central Maluku, Ambon, Jakarta, and the Netherlands, 70 villages. Also spoken in Netherlands. Alternate names: Boeroe, Buruese.  Dialects: Masarete (South Buru), Wae Sama (Waesama), Central Buru (Rana, Wae Geren, Wae Kabo), Fogi (Li Emteban, Tomahu). Li Garan is a special taboo dialect spoken by the Rana people (3,000 to 5,000 users). Fogi dialect 500 ethnic population, but no speakers. Lexical similarity 90% between Masarete and Wae Sama, 88% between Masarete and Rana, 80% between Wae Sama and Rana, 68% between Li Enyorot (Lisela) and Masarete, 48% between Liliali and Masarete, 45% between Kayeli and Masarete, 44% between Ambelau and Masarete, 27% to 33% between Buru and the languages of Sula.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru 
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Dai

[dij] 808 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). South, Dai and Babar islands. Dai is 15 miles north of Babar. 3 villages. Dialects: No dialect variation. Lexical similarity 72% with Dawera-Daweloor (closest), 71% with Nakarahamto, 49% with Masela-South Babar, 48% with Tepa (Luang).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North 
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Damar, East

[dmr] 2,800 (1990 SIL). Six villages along the east side of Damar Island, north and east of Roma Island, north of the eastern tip of Timor Island, south Maluku. Alternate names: South Damar.  Dialects: Not intelligible with West Damar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, East Damar 
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Damar, West

[drn] 800 (1987 SIL). Two villages on the north side of Damar Island, north of the eastern tip of Timor Island, south Maluku, Indonesia. Alternate names: North Damar.  Dialects: Not intelligible with East Damar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, West Damar 
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Dawera-Daweloor

[ddw] 1,500 (1989 SIL). South Maluku, six villages on Dawera and Daweloor islands. The islands are 11 miles northeast of Babar Island. Alternate names: Davelor.  Dialects: Minor dialect differences.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North 
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Dobel

[kvo] 8,000 (2000 SIL). Population includes 6,500 plus 1,000 outside the area; 2,700 in Northern Dobel, 1,800 in Straits Dobel, 1,400 in Southeast Dobel. Aru Islands, along the whole east coast of Kobror Island, one village in southeast Wokam Island, 4 villages on both sides of the eastern half of Barakai Strait (on both Kobror Islands and Koba Island), and 2 villages in central Kobror Island. 18 villages. Southeast Maluku. Also in Dobo and Ambon. Alternate names: Doibel, Sersifar Tannin, Kobro'or, Kobroor.  Dialects: Northern Dobel, Straits Dobel, Southeast Dobel. At least three dialects. Related to Lola and Lorang. Lexical similarity 78% to 86% with Koba.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Elpaputih

[elp] 424 (2000 WCD). West Seram, central Maluku. Alternate names: Elpaputi.  Dialects: Closest to Nusalaut, Amahai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi 
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Emplawas

[emw] 250 (1989 SIL). Emplawas village, southwest Babar Island, south Maluku. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar 
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Fordata

[frd] 50,000. Population includes 25,000 in the language area and 25,000 elsewhere (2000 C. Marshall). Southeast Maluku, northern Tanimbar Islands of the Fordata, Larat, the Molu-Maru group, a few villages on the northwest part of Yamdena, and on Seira off the west coast of Yamdena. 30 villages. Also in Saumlaki, Ambon, Tual, Sorong, Hayapura, Jakarta. Alternate names: Larat, Vai Tnebar, Vaidida, Vai Fordata.  Dialects: Fordata-Larat I, Fordata-Larat II, Molo (Molo-Maru), Sera (Seira). Sera is the most divergent dialect. Lexical similarity 68% with Kei.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata 
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Galela

[gbi] 79,000 (1990 SIL). Population includes 41,000 Kadai, 10,000 Kadina, 24,000 Morotai, and 4,000 Sopi. North Maluku, Galela Bay, and north of Tobelo to the northern tip of Halmahera, Morotai Island except southeast quadrant, islands of Gunage and Moari near Kayoa, Bacan, Obi, scattered along the southwest coast of Halmahera. Dialects: Kadai, Kadina, Morotai, Sopi. Laba may be a dialect. Speakers have 65% intelligibility of Loloda, Loloda 85% of Galela.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Galela-Loloda 
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Gamkonora

[gak] 1,500 (1987 Voorhoeve and Visser). North Halmahera, a few villages along the coast to the south of the Ibu area, north Maluku. Dialects: Lexical similarity 81% with Waioli.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Sahu 
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Gane

[gzn] 2,900 (1982 Teljeur). North Maluku, Halmahera Island, south part of southern peninsula. Alternate names: Gani, Giman.  Dialects: Close to East Makian and Kayoa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane 
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Gebe

[gei] 2,651 (2000 WCD). North Maluku, Gebe, Yoi'umiyal, and Gag islands between southern Halmahera and Waigeo Island (Papua), 4 villages. Alternate names: Gebi.  Dialects: Umera. Lexical similarity 44% with Patani.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Geser-Gorom

[ges] 36,500 (1989 SIL). Eastern end of Seram, and the Gorom Islands. Alternate names: Geser, Gesa, Gorom, Goram, Goran, Gorong, Seram, Seran, Seran Laut.  Dialects: Goram Laut, Mina Mina Gorong, Kelimuri. Lexical similarity 73% to 93% among dialects, 51% to 61% with Watubela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom 
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Gorap

[goq] 1,000 (1992 SIL). North Maluku, Morotai Island, Pilowo and Waringin villages; Central Halmahera, Bobane and Igo villages. Dialects: Reported to be a mixed language, including Ternate and Malay words, with different word order from other languages of north Halmahera or the Austronesian languages. Lexical similarity 85% with Indonesian, but comprehension is limited.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified 
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Haruku

[hrk] 18,219 (1989 SIL). Haruku Island, Lease Islands, central Maluku. Dialects: Hulaliu, Pelauw, Kailolo, Rohomoni. Each village is a separate dialect. Lexical similarity 81% to 92% among dialects. Lexical similarity 74% to 76% with Tulehu, 67% to 71% with Saparua.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay 
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Hitu

[htu] 15,965 (1987 SIL). 5 villages: Wakal, Hitu, Mamala, Morela, and Hila; Hitu Peninsula, Ambon Island. Dialects: Wakal, Morela, Mamala, Hitu, Hila. Lexical similarity 67% to 82% with Seit-Kaitetu, 74% to 82% with Tulehu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon 
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Horuru

[hrr] 4,242 (2000 WCD). Seram, central Maluku. Dialects: Hulung may be related. This may be an alternate name for another language.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram 
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Hoti

[hti] 10 (1987 SIL). East Seram, central Maluku. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, East Seram  Nearly extinct.
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Huaulu

[hud] 300 (1987 SIL). East Seram, central Maluku, northwest of Manusela, 10 villages. Alternate names: Alakamat, Bahasa Asli.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 64% to 72% with Manusela dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti 
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Hukumina

[huw] 1 (1989 SIL). Formerly spoken in Hukumina, Palumata, and Tomahu districts of northwest Buru Island. The present speaker is from the former village of Hukumina that used to be located behind the present village of Masarete, near the fort at Kayeli in northeast Buru. Alternate names: Bambaa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Hulung

[huk] 10 (1991 SIL). Hulung village, and Sauweli hamlet, west Seram, central Maluku. Dialects: Lexical similarity 67% with Lisabata-Nuniali, 66% with Naka'ela and South Wemale, 63% with Alune, 59% with North Wemale.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Hulung  Nearly extinct.
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Ibu

[ibu] 35 (1987 Voorhoeve and Visser). Ethnic population: 50 to 200 in the ethnic group (1984). North Maluku, northern Halmahera Island, mouth of Ibu River, villages of Gamlamo and Gamici. Dialects: May be inherently intelligible with Sahu.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Sahu  Nearly extinct.
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Ili'uun

[ilu] 1,400 (1990 SIL). Wetar Island coast, villages of Telemar, Karbubu, Klishatu, Ilmaumau, Erai (Eray), Nabar, and Esulit on the west end of Wetar, and Istutun village on Lirang Island off the southwest tip of Wetar, southwest Maluku. Alternate names: Iliun, Hahutau, Hahutan, Limera, Ilmaumau, Erai.  Dialects: Telemar, Karbubu, Ustutun, Klishatu, Ilmaumau, Eray, Nabar, Esulit. All speakers now speak the Ili'uun dialect. Lexical similarity 93% to 97% among dialects. Lexical similarity 73% with Tugun, 69% with Aputai, 67% with Perai, 51% with Talur.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Wetar 
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Imroing

[imr] 450 (1989 SIL). Village of Imroing, southwest Babar Island, south Maluku. Alternate names: Imroin.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar 
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Kadai

[kzd] 350 (2000 WCD). North Maluku, Sula Islands, Taliabu Island, interior mountains. Possibly also in the mountains of Mangole Island. Dialects: May be intelligible with Taliabu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo 
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Kaibobo

[kzb] 500 (1983 Collins and Voorhoeve). Kaibobo, Hatusua, Waisamu, Kamarian, Seruawan, Tihulale, and Rumahkay villages in Kairatu District; 8 villages total, Piru Bay, west Seram, central Maluku. Alternate names: Kaibubu.  Dialects: Kaibobo, Hatusua. Related to Lisabata-Nuniali. Lexical similarity 82% to 88% between Kaibobo and Hatusua, 75% with Kamarian, 62% to 65% with Saparua, 62% with Piru, 58% to 62% with Luhu, 61% with Naka'ela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East 
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Kamarian

[kzx] 10 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 6,000 in the village (1987 SIL). West Seram, central Maluku, Kamarian village on the south coast of Seram, at the eastern end of Piru Bay. Alternate names: Kamariang, Seruawan.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 75% with Kaibobo, 67% with Saparua, 60% with Lisabata-Nuniali, 59% with Amahai, Piru, Naka'ela, and Hulung.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Kamarian  Nearly extinct.
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Kao

[kax] 403 (2000 WCD). North Maluku, interior North Halmahera, around the town of Kao, near the mouth of the Kao River. Alternate names: Kau, Ka'u.  Dialects: Could be a marginal dialect of Pagu, but relates uniquely to other languages in the Kao River subbranch.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Kao River 
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Karey

[kyd] 950 (1995 SIL). Village of Karey, east coast of Tarangan Island, southern Aru Islands, south Maluku. Alternate names: Kerei, Krei.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with East Tarangan and Batuley.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Kayeli

[kzl] 3 (1995). Not used for 3 decades by the speakers (1989 C. Grimes SIL). Ethnic population: 800 (1995). Southern Namlea Bay, north Buru Island, central Maluku. Alternate names: Kajeli, Cajeli, Caeli, Gaeli.  Dialects: Kayeli, Leliali (Liliali), Lumaete (Lumaiti, Mumaite, Lumara).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Kayeli  Nearly extinct.
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Kei

[kei] 85,000 (2000 Ed Travis). 4,500 monolinguals. Kei Kecil, Kei Besar, and surrounding islands, except the villages of Banda Eli and Banda Elat on Kei Besar, and the Kur Islands, where Kei is used as a lingua franca. About 207 villages in the major part of 10 islands. Southeast Maluku. Alternate names: Veveu Evav, Kai.  Dialects: Kei Kecil, Kei Besar, Tayando, Tanimbar Kei (Atnebar), Ta'am. Kei Kecil is the city dialect that has prestige. Kei Besar people usually know the Kei Kecil dialect, but not vice versa. Kei Besar is closer to Fordata than the other Kei dialects. Tanimbar Kei is spoken in only one village. Lexical similarity 60% with Fordata.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata 
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Kisar

[kje] 20,000 (1995 SIL). Kisar Island northeast of Timor Island, 19 villages, villages of Hila and Likagraha (Solath) on Roma Island, 3 villages on Wetar Island (Amau, Naumatan, Hi'ai), and several hundred in Ambon city, Dili, and Kupang. Used as a second language by a handful of Oirata speakers on Kisar. South Maluku. Alternate names: Meher, Yotowawa.  Dialects: Not related to Oirata, which has sometimes been called a dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Kisar-Roma 
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Koba

[kpd] 600 (2000 J. Hughes). Aru Islands, southeast Maluku, 3 villages on Baun and Fukarel islands bordering Dobel. The islands where Koba is spoken are to the southeast of Kobror Island, at the mouth of the Barakai Strait. Dialects: Southeast Koba. Low comprehension of Dobel. Lexical similarity 78% to 86% with Dobel.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Kola

[kvv] 7,700 (1995 SIL). North Aru Islands, all around the coast of Kola Island and adjacent islands, south Maluku. 22 villages. Alternate names: Warilau, Kulaha, Marlasi.  Dialects: Intelligibility testing showed Marlasi is intelligible to Kompane speakers, but with some possible adaptation of literature needed. Lexical similarity 77% with Kompane, 70% with Ujir.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Kompane

[kvp] 330 (1995 SIL). Northeast Aru in Kompane village on the east coast of Kongan Island, south of Kola and north of Wokam islands, south Maluku. Alternate names: Komfana, Kongampani.  Dialects: Close to Kola, linguistically between Kola and Batuley. Intelligibility of Kola is good, but some adaptation of literature may be needed.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Kur

[kuv] 3,181 (2000 WCD). Kur Island and nearby islands, western Kei Kecil District, south Maluku. Dialects: Separate language from Kei. Survey needed to determine boundaries of intelligibility of dialects to the north and the central dialect, and of Teor. Lexical similarity 47% to 50% with Kei, 71% to 83% with Teor, 41% with Watubela, 38% with Geser.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur 
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Laba

[lau] 2,000 (1991 SIL). North Maluku, 4 villages to the interior of the south end of Loloda District. Alternate names: South Loloda, Kedi.  Dialects: Phonology like Galela, 70% intelligibility, 75% of Loloda. Lexical similarity 75% with Galela, 78% with Loloda.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Galela-Loloda 
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Laha

[lhh] 3,894 (1987 SIL). Laha village and several nearby smaller villages, south central coast of Ambon Island, central Maluku. Alternate names: Central Ambon.  Dialects: Related to Seram languages, but distinct from Manusela. Lexical similarity 64% to 66% with Asilulu and Hila-Kaitetu (closest).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon 
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Larike-Wakasihu

[alo] 12,557 (1987 SIL). Larike, Wakasihu, Tapi, Allang, and Lai villages, southwest Hitu Peninsula, Ambon Island. Dialects: Allang, Wakasihu, Larike. Wakasihu may need separate literature from Larike. The western end of the Ambon dialect cluster. Lexical similarity 81% among Allang and Larike and Wakasihu, 92% between Larike and Wakasihu. 68% to 71% with Asilulu, 67% to 72% with Negeri Lima.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal, East 
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Latu

[ltu] 2,134 (1982 SIL). Latu village, Elpaputih Bay, southwest Seram Island, central Maluku. Dialects: Lexical similarity 82% to 84% with Saparua dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua 
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Leti

[lti] 7,500 (1995 SIL). Leti Island. Dialects: Marginal intelligibility of Luang. They have difficulty with written Luang. Lexical similarity 89% with Luang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Luang 
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Liana-Seti

[ste] 3,000 (1989 SIL). Eastern Teluti Bay to the north coast, districts of Seram, Bula, Werinama, and Tehoru, central Maluku, 8 villages. Alternate names: Liana, Lianan, Uhei Kaclakin, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei Kahlakim, Teula, Liambata-Kobi.  Dialects: "Seti", Wahakaim, Kobi. Lexical similarity 66% to 74% between Seti (westernmost and interior) and Wahakaim (near coast), 69% to 78% between Kobi and Seti, 70% between Kobi and Wahakaim, 42% to 61% between Kobi and Manusela, 54% to 66% between Kobi and Benggoi, 48% to 58% between Kobi and Salas Gunung.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti 
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Lisabata-Nuniali

[lcs] 1,830 (1982). Spread across the north coast of West and North Seram, 5 villages, central Maluku. Alternate names: Lisabata, Nuniali, Noniali.  Dialects: Lisabata-Timur, Nuniali, Sukaraja, Kawa. Lexical similarity between Kawa (far western) and Lisabata Timur (far eastern) is 85%, 72% with Naka'ela, 67% with Hulung, 63% with Alune.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram 
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Lisela

[lcl] 11,922 (1989 SIL). Northern, northeastern, north central coastal strips, and northwestern Buru Island, lower Wae Geren and Vae Apo valleys of Buru Island, central Maluku. Some in Ambon. Alternate names: Buru, North Buru, Li Enyorot, Liet Enjorot, Wayapo.  Dialects: Lisela (Licela, Licella), Tagalisa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru 
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Lola

[lcd] 830 (1995 SIL). 3 villages of Lola, Warabal, and Jambuair on 3 islands east of Kobroor and Baun islands, Aru Islands, southeast Maluku. Dialects: Lola, Warabal. Linguistically between Batuley and Dobel; close to Koba.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Loloda

[loa] 15,000 (1991 SIL). Population includes 2,000 Bakun. North Maluku, northwest coast of Halmahera. Alternate names: Loda, North Loloda.  Dialects: Bakun. Intelligibility with Laba is very limited. Speakers have 85% intelligibility of Galela, Galela has 65% of Loloda.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Galela-Loloda 
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Lorang

[lrn] 325 (1995 SIL). Village of Lorang, center of Aru, on Koba Island. Southeast Maluku. Dialects: Close to Koba, and to a lesser extent to Dobel. Some similarities with Manombai, but intelligibility is lower than might be expected.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Loun

[lox] 20. North central Seram, central Maluku. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Loun  Nearly extinct.
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Luang

[lex] 18,000 (1995 SIL). 200 monolinguals. Moa, Lakor, Luang, Sermata, Wetan, northwest Babar Islands east of Timor, south Maluku. Alternate names: Letri Lgona, Literi Lagona, Lgona.  Dialects: Luang, Wetan (Wetang), Moa, Lakor. Low comprehension of Leti. Lexical similarity 89% with Leti.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Luang 
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Luhu

[lcq] 6,500 (1983 Collins and Voorhoeve). Luhu village on Hoamoal Peninsula, west Seram Island, and Boano and Kelang islands, off of west Seram. Dialects: Luhu, Batu Merah, Kelang. Related to Manipa. Lexical similarity 77% with Piru, 71% to 73% with Asilulu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal, West 
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Maba

[mqa] 6,617 (2000 WCD). North Maluku, northern coast of southeastern peninsula of Halmahera, and in Wasilei area. Alternate names: Bitjoli, Bicoli, Ingli.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast 
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Makian, East

[mky] 20,000. Population includes 18,000 or more in East Makian, 2,000 or more in Kayoa (1983 SIL). Eastern Makian Island, southern Mori Island, Kayoa islands, west coast of south Halmahera, Bacan and Obi islands, north Maluku. Transmigration project near Kao. Alternate names: Makian Timur, Makian Dalam.  Dialects: East Makian, Kayoa (Kajoa). Close to Gane.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane 
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Makian, West

[mqs] 12,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Population includes 7,000 on Makian Island, 5,000 on Kayoa Islands. Western Makian Island, some of the Kayoa Islands, areas along the west coast of southern Halmahera, north Maluku. Alternate names: Makian Barat, Makian Luar.  Dialects: Language isolate within north Halmahera. Formerly classified as Austronesian.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, West Makian 
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Malay, Ambonese

[abs] 200,000 in Indonesia (1987 J. Collins). Population total all countries: 245,020. Central Maluku, Ambon, Haruku, Nusa Laut, Saparua Islands, along the coastal areas of Seram, and southern Maluku. Also spoken in Netherlands, USA. Alternate names: Malayu Ambon, Ambonese, Ambong.  Dialects: Dobo Malay. Marginal intelligibility of Indonesian. Difficult intelligibility of Ternate Malay; speakers switch to Indonesian. Lexical similarity 81% with Standard Malay.  Classification: Creole, Malay based 
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Malay, Bacanese

[btj] 2,500 (1991 H. Shelden SIL). Over 1,000 in Labuha (1987 J. Collins). North Maluku, Bacan Island west of southern Halmahera. Centered around the site of the former palace in Labuha, 1 village within about 5 km walking distance from Labuha, another hour by dugout (Indomut), and half the population of Waya and Lele villages on Mandioli Island. Alternate names: Bacan, Batjan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay 
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Malay, Banda

[bpq] 3,690 (2000 WCD). Banda Islands. Classification: Creole, Malay based 
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Malay, North Moluccan

[max] 700,000 (2001 R. Whisler). 100,000 monolinguals. North Maluku, Halmahera, Sula, and Obi islands. First-language speakers in one neighborhood of Labuha (Christian), and some other families with parents of different ethnic origins. Alternate names: Ternate Malay.  Dialects: Different meaning of particles from Manado Malay. Closer to Manado Malay than to Ambonese Malay.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay 
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Mangole

[mqc] 7,275 (2000 WCD). North Maluku, southern coast of Mangole Island and northern tip of Sulabesi of the Sula Islands. Alternate names: Mangoli, Sula Mangoli.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula 
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Manipa

[mqp] 1,500 (1983 Collins and Voorhoeve). Manipa Island west of Seram, central Maluku, 4 villages. Alternate names: Soow Huhelia.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 72% with Luhu, 64% with Piru, 60% to 62% with Hitu, 60% to 61% with Tulehu and Asilulu, 58% to 61% with Hila-Kaitetu, 55% to 60% with Larike-Wakasihu, 56% with Boano and Kaibobo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East 
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Manombai

[woo] 7,475 (1995 J. Hughes). West coast of Wokam Island, from Wokam village southwards, in 21 villages along both sides of Manombai Strait (Sungai) as far as Wakua, and in Benjina on Kobror Island, and Gardakau on Maikor Island at the western end of Barakai Strait, and small village of Kobamar on east coast of Wokam Island. It may be no longer spoken on Wamar Island. Aru Islands, Southeast Maluku. Alternate names: Manobai, Wokam, Wamar.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Dobel. Lexical similarity 76% with Lorang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Manusela

[wha] 7,000 (1989 SIL). 30 villages, Manusela mountains of north Seram and along Teluti Bay in south Seram, central Maluku. Alternate names: Wahai, Wahinama.  Dialects: Kanikeh, Hatuolu, Maneo, South Manusela. Kanikeh has 66% to 74% lexical similarity with other varieties, Hatuolo 67% to 75%, Maneo 64% to 86%, Maneoratu 66% to 86%, South Manusela 67% to 80%, dialects have 64% to 72% with Huaulu, 42% to 61% with Liana, 45% with Saleman.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti 
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Mariri

[mqi] 390 (1995 SIL). Eastern Aru on Mariri Island east of Kobroor Island, 1 village, south Maluku. Alternate names: Mairiri.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 81% with Batuley.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Masela, Central

[mxz] 511 (1980 de Jonge). 3 villages on Marsela Island, south Maluku. Alternate names: Central Marsela, Marsela-South Babar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar 
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Masela, East

[vme] 519 (1980 de Jonge). 3 villages on Marsela Island, south Maluku. Alternate names: East Marsela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar 
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Masela, West

[mss] 850 (1980 de Jonge). 5 villages on Marsela Island, south Maluku. Alternate names: West Marsela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar 
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Masiwang

[bnf] 1,000 (1989 SIL). Seram Island, Waru Bay area, Bula District, central Maluku. Alternate names: Bonfia.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 44% with Bobot, 43% with Salas Gunung, 39% with Sepa and Teluti, 36% with Liana and Atamanu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Masiwang 
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Modole

[mqo] 2,000 (1983 SIL). North Maluku, interior north Halmahera Island, headwaters of Kao River. Alternate names: Madole.  Dialects: North Modole, South Modole. Minimal differences between north and south Modole.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Kao River 
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Naka'ela

[nae] 5 (1985 SIL). Kairatu village, northwest Seram, central Maluku. Dialects: Lexical similarity 71% with Lisabata-Nuniali, 66% with Hulung, 63% with Alune.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai  Nearly extinct.
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Nila

[nil] 1,800 (1989 SIL). Transmigration area on south central Seram Island, central Maluku. 6 villages. (Originally Nila Island in south central Maluku). Dialects: Close to Serua. Not intelligible with Teun.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua 
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Nuaulu, North

[nni] 500 (1990 SIL). Two villages on the north coast of central Seram Island, central Maluku. Alternate names: Nuaulu, Patakai, Fatakai.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 67% with South Nuaulu, 64% with Saleman.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu 
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Nuaulu, South

[nxl] 1,500 (1995 SIL). 6 villages on the south coast and interior of Amahai District, Seram Island, central Maluku. Alternate names: Nuaulu, Patakai, Fatakai.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 67% with North Nuaulu, 50% with South Wemale, Hulung, and Naka'ela, 48% with Saleman.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu 
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Nusa Laut

[nul] 10. Ethnic population: 2,226 (1989 SIL). Titawai village, Nusa Laut Island, Lease Islands, central Maluku. Alternate names: Nusalaut.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Saparua, 65% with Amahai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi  Nearly extinct.
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Oirata

[oia] 1,221 (1987 SIL). 2 villages in east and west Oirata in southeast Kisar Island, south Maluku, and in Ambon city (several hundred). Alternate names: Maaro.  Dialects: Not related to other languages on Oirata or central Maluku languages. Related to languages in East Timor, but not closely.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Oirata 
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Pagu

[pgu] 3,309 (2000 WCD). North Maluku, interior North Halmahera south of the Modole language area out to the mouth of the Kao River. Alternate names: Pago, Pagoe.  Dialects: Isam, Pagu, Toliwiku (Toliliko).  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Kao River 
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Patani

[ptn] 10,583 (2000 WCD). North Maluku, the entire narrow tip of the southeastern peninsula of Halmahera, extending west along coast of peninsula. Nine villages: Patani, Peniti, Tepeleu, Gemya, Kipai, Wailegi, Yeisowo, Banemo, Moreala, Sibenpopu (with some Tobelo speakers). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast 
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Paulohi

[plh] 50 (1982). Central Maluku, West Seram, western shore of Elpaputih Bay in south central Seram Island, 2 villages, Kecamatan Amahai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Solehua  Nearly extinct.
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Perai

[wet] 278 (1990 Hinton). Wetar Island coast, north of Timor, southwest Maluku, Uhak and Moning villages on the northeast coast. Alternate names: Tutunohan.  Dialects: Moning, Uhak. Lexical similarity 93% among dialects, 79% with Aputai, 76% with Tugun, 67% with Ili'uun, 51% with Talur.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Wetar 
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Piru

[ppr] 10 (1985 Y. Taguchi SIL). 1 village, west Seram Island, central Maluku. Dialects: Lexical similarity 72% with Luhu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram  Nearly extinct.
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Roma

[rmm] 1,700 (1991 SIL). Jerusu village, Roma Island, north of Timor Island, south Maluku. Alternate names: Romang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Kisar-Roma 
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Sahu

[saj] 7,500 (1987 Voorhoeve and Visser). Population includes 3,500 in Tala'i, 4,000 in Pa'disua. North Maluku, southwestern north Halmahera Island. Alternate names: Sa'u, Sau, Sahu'u.  Dialects: Pa'disua (Palisua), Tala'i. Close to Waioli and Gamkonora.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Sahu 
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Salas

[sgu] 50 (1989 SIL). Salas Gunung village, Seram Island, Waru Bay, central Maluku. Alternate names: Liambata, Lenkaitahe, Salas Gunung.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 48% to 58% with Liana, 46% to 50% with Benggoi, 35% to 46% with Manusela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti 
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Saleman

[sau] 4,800 (1989 SIL). 5 villages (Saleman, Pasanea, Sawai, Besi, Wahai), north central Seram, central Maluku. Alternate names: Sawai, Seleman, Hatue, Wahai.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 64% with North Nuaulu, 48% with South Nuaulu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu 
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Saparua

[spr] 10,216 (1989 SIL). Population includes 4,519 in Iha. Kulur, Iha, and Siri-Sori villages on Saparua Island and Iha, Kulur, Latu, Hualoy, and Tomalehu villages on Seram Island, Lease Islands, central Maluku. Also spoken by hundreds of Latu people in Kairatu village. Dialects: Kulur, Iha-Saparua, Iha-Seram, Siri-Sori. Each village is a dialect. Lexical similarity 86% to 89% among dialects; 82% to 84% with Latu, 69% with Amahai, 67% with Kamarian, 68% to 71% with Haruku, 65% with Kaibobo, 62% to 66% with Tulehu, 54% to 62% with Luhu, 49% with Piru, 54% with Naka'ela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua 
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Sawai

[szw] 12,000 (2000 R. Whisler). Few monolinguals. North Maluku, Gane Timur and Weda districts, coastal area between southern and southeastern peninsulas of Halmahera. 13 villages (Mafa, Foya, Weda, Kobe Tanjung, Kobe Gunung, Kobi Peplis, Lelilef Sawai, Lelilef Woebulan, Gemaf, Sagea, Wale, Messa, Dote). A few families dispersed in 4 or 5 cities in Indonesia. Alternate names: Weda, Were, Weda-Sawai.  Dialects: Weda, Sawai, Kobe, Faya-Mafa, Messa-Dote. Lexical similarity 64% with North Nuaulu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast 
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Seit-Kaitetu

[hik] 10,171 (1987 SIL). Seit (Seith) and Kaitetu villages, north coast of Ambon Island, central Maluku. Alternate names: Hila-Kaitetu.  Dialects: Seit (Seith), Kaitetu. Lexical similarity 85% between Kaitetu and Seit. Lexical similarity 78% to 82% with Asilulu, 67% to 74% with Tulehu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu 
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Selaru

[slu] 8,000 (2001 SIL). Tanimbar, six of seven villages on Selaru Island, half of the village of Latdalam on Yamdena Island, and Lingada village on Nus-Wotar Island off the west coast of Yamdena. 8 villages. South Maluku. Sizeable communities in Saumlake and Ambon. Alternate names: Salaru.  Dialects: Kandar. Slight dialect differences. Not closely related to other nearby languages. Lexical similarity 56% with Seluwasan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern 
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Seluwasan

[sws] 2,839 (1980 government report). Population includes 739 in Makatian, 2,100 in Seluwasan. Southwest coast of Yamdena Island, south Maluku. Three villages: Wermatang, Batu Putih, and Marantutul. Alternate names: Selvasa, Selwasa.  Dialects: Seluwasan, Makatian. Makatian is quite different from other dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern 
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Sepa

[spb] 2,600 (1989 SIL). Sepa village, Seram Island, central Maluku. Alternate names: Tamilouw.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 79% between Sepa and Tamilouw, 69% to 78% with Teluti, 50% with Atamanu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East 
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Serili

[sve] 328 (1980 de Jonge). Northeast Marsela Island, south Maluku. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar 
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Serua

[srw] 2,000 (1990 SIL). Transmigration area in south central Seram Island, central Maluku. 4 villages. Originally Serua Island in south central Maluku. Dialects: Close to Nila. Not intelligible with Teun.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua 
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Sula

[szn] 20,000 (1983 SIL). North Maluku, Sula Islands, Sulabesi Island, and scattered communities on the eastern and western ends and north coast of Mangole Island, and northeast coast of Buru Island. Alternate names: Sanana.  Dialects: Fagudu, Falahu, Facei (Facé). Close to Mangole.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula 
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Tabaru

[tby] 15,000 (1991 SIL). North Maluku, Ibu, Jailolo, and Oba districts. Alternate names: Tobaru.  Dialects: Adu, Nyeku. The northern dialect is the main one. The two dialects are inherently intelligible with each other.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Tobaru 
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Taliabu

[tlv] 4,518 (2000 WCD). Population includes 500 to 1,500 in Mangei. North Maluku, Taliabu Island, northwestern Mangole, Sula Islands. Alternate names: Taliabo.  Dialects: Padang (Samada), Mananga, Mangei (Mange'e, Mange, Mang, Soboyo, Sobojo). Dialects share lexical similarities in the upper 90% range.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo 
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Talur

[ilw] 675 (1990 SIL). Hiay, Ilputih (a), and Ilwaki villages in south central Wetar Island, 60 km north of East Timor, in southwest Maluku. Alternate names: Ilwaki, Iliwaki, Galoleng, Lir Talo, Ilmedu.  Dialects: Ilputih, Ilwaki (Iliwaki), Hiay. Lexical similarity 94% to 98% between dialects. Lexical similarity 86% with Galoli in East Timor, 57% with Aputai, 52% with Tugun, 51% with Perai and Ili'uun.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Wetar 
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Tarangan, East

[tre] 3,784 (1987 Maluku Dalam Angka). East coast of Tarangan Island, south Aru Islands, and villages in Maikor Strait (Sungai Maikor), 13 villages. South Maluku. Alternate names: East Trangan, Tarangan Timur.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 71% with West Tarangan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Tarangan, West

[txn] 6,478 (1987 Maluku Dalam Angka). West coast of Tarangan Island, southern Aru Islands, south Maluku. Largest language in the Aru Islands. Alternate names: West Trangan, Tarangan Barat.  Dialects: Southwestern Tarangan, North Central Tarangan. 2 sharply distinct dialect groups, with minor variation within them. Lexical similarity 70% with East Tarangan and Wokam.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Tela-Masbuar

[tvm] 1,050 (1990 SIL). Villages of Tela and Masbuar, southwest Babar Island, south Maluku. Alternate names: Tela'a, Masbuar-Tela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar 
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Teluti

[tlt] 17,000 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, south Seram Island, Teluti Bay. Alternate names: Taluti, Tihoru, Tehoru, Silen, Wolu.  Dialects: West Teluti (Haya, Wolu, Tehoru, Tehua), Laha Serani. Lexical similarity 74% to 89% among dialects, 69% to 78% with Sepa, 50% with Atamanu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East 
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Teor

[tev] 1,100 (1986 SIL). Teor and Ut islands, South Maluku. Alternate names: Tio'or.  Dialects: Gaur Kristen, Ut. Speakers say they understand Kur. Lexical similarity 79% between Gaur Kristen and Ut, 71% to 83% with Kur, 41% with Watubela, 38% with Geser.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur 
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Ternate

[tft] 42,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North Maluku, islands of Ternate, Kayoa, Bacan, Obi, and coastal communities on western north Halmahera. Lingua franca in northern and northeastern Halmahera. Dialects: Close to Tidore.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, South 
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Te'un

[tve] 1,200 (1990 SIL). Transmigration area in south central Seram Island, central Maluku. 4 villages. Originally Teun Island in south central Maluku. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Teun 
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Tidore

[tvo] 26,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North Maluku, islands of Tidore, Maitara, Mare, northern half of Moti, and some areas of west coast of Halmahera. Dialects: Close to Ternate.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, South 
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Tobelo

[tlb] 27,720 (2000 WCD). North Maluku, north Halmahera Island, Tobelo, Kao, and Jailolo districts, and Maba and Wasile districts, Halmahera Tengah; northern half of Morotai, all coastal areas of Kao Bay and inland, Patani, Weda, Gane, Bacan, Obi, Ambon, Raja Ampat islands of Papua, Sorong, Papua. Dialects: Dodinga, Boëng, Tobelo (Heleworuru).  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Tobelo 
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Tugun

[tzn] 1,200 (1990 SIL). 1% monolinguals. Wetar Island, north of Timor, southwest Maluku; Mahuan, Masapun, Tomliapat, Ilpokil, Kahailin, Ilway, Arwala villages, on the southeast end of Wetar. Alternate names: Tutunohan, Mahuan.  Dialects: Mahuan, Masapua, Tomliapat, Ilpokil, Kahailin Ilway, Arwala. Lexical similarity 92% to 97% among dialects, 76% with Perai, 74% with Aputai, 73% with Ili'uun, 52% with Talur.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Southwest Maluku, Wetar 
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Tugutil

[tuj] 2,588 (2000 WCD). North Maluku, north Halmahera Island, inland around Kusuri, inland in Kecamatan Tobelo, around Taboulamo in Kecamatan Kao, in the pass between Lolobata and Buli in Kecamatan Wasilei, along the Dodaga and Tutuling rivers, and along the Akelamo and Mabulan rivers in Kecamatan Maba, Tanjung Lili, villages of Miaf, Bebseli, and Marasibno. A few along the Lili, Waisango, and Afu rivers, and reports of other places. Dialects: Teluk Lili, Kusuri. Possibly several dialects separated by large distances. Intelligibility of Tobelo dialects is inadequate.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Tobelo 
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Tulehu

[tlu] 18,843 (1987 SIL). 4 villages on the coast of northeast Ambon Island, central Maluku. Alternate names: Northeast Ambon.  Dialects: Tulehu, Liang, Tengah-Tengah, Tial. Each dialect is in a separate village. Eastern end of Ambon dialect chain. Lexical similarity 84% to 90% among dialects, 74% to 82% with Hitu, 72% to 76% with Haruku.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon 
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Ujir

[udj] 975 (1995 J. Hughes). 2 villages, Ujir on Ujir Island and Samang on the end of western peninsula on Wokam Island, in northwest Aru Islands, south Maluku. Alternate names: Udjir.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 75% with Kola in north Aru, and slightly less with Kulaha on the west coast of Kola Island.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Waioli

[wli] 3,000 (1987 Voorhoeve and Visser). North Halmahera, between Sahu and Ibu languages, north Maluku. Alternate names: Wajoli, Wayoli.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 81% with Gamkonora.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, North, Sahu 
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Watubela

[wah] 4,000 (1990 SIL). Watubela Islands, east central Maluku, north of Kur Island. Alternate names: Snabi Watubela, Kasiui, Kesui, Kasui, Wesi, Esiriun, Matabello.  Dialects: Tamher Timur, Sulmelang. Lexical similarity 77% between dialects, 51% to 61% with Geser-Gorom, 41% with Teor and Kur, 37% with Bobot, 34% with Masiwang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom 
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Wemale, North

[weo] 4,929 (1982). Spread along the north coast of Taniwel District, east of Taniwel, and in the westernmost part of East Seram District, 24 villages. Dialects: Horale, Kasieh, Uwenpantai. Kawe may be a dialect. Lexical similarity between east and central dialects is 80%, 72% with South Wemale, 59% with Hulung.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Wemale 
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Wemale, South

[tlw] 3,726 (1987 SIL). Central Maluku, west Seram, 15 villages; 13 in Kairatu, mainly in the interior, and two westernmost coastal villages of Amahai District. Alternate names: Tala, Honitetu.  Dialects: Dialect chain between Horale, Kasieh, Uwenpantai, and Honitetu. Kawe may be a dialect. Lexical similarity between Horale and Kasieh, and between Uwenpantai and Honitetu is 80%, 72% with North Wemale, 66% with Hulung, 47% with Atamanu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Wemale 
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Yalahatan

[jal] 1,700 (2004 SIL). Population includes approximately 850 in each village. West Seram, villages of Yalahatan and Haruru, central Maluku. Alternate names: Atamanu, Jahalatan, Jahalatane, Awaiya.  Dialects: Slight dialect differences reported between the two villages. Lexical similarity 50% to 52% with Sepa, 49% to 50% with Teluti.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers 
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Yamdena

[jmd] 25,000 (1991 SIL). Ethnic population: 35,000 to 40,000 (1991 SIL). Southeast Maluku, eastern coast of Yamdena, Adaut village on northern tip of Selaru, and one of the two languages spoken in Latdalam village, southwest Yamdena. 35 villages. Alternate names: Jamdena, Jamden.  Dialects: North Yamdena, South Yamdena. Dialect chaining from north to south, but with considerable morphological and phonological differences. The southern dialect is more prestigious. Lexical similarity 90% between the north and south dialects, 47% with Fordata.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Yamdena 
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Extinct languages

Moksela

[vms] Extinct. Central Maluku, possibly east Buru Island, near Kayeli. Alternate names: Maksela, Opselan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru 
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Palumata

[pmc] Extinct. Central Maluku, northwest Buru Island. Alternate names: Palamata, Balamata.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru 
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Ternateño

[tmg] Extinct. North Maluku, Ternate Island, west of Halmahera Island. Varieties of Portuguese creole were also spoken in Banda and Ambon. Alternate names: Ternatenyo.  Dialects: Spanish relexification. Historical relationship with Chavacano and dialects, which are still spoken in the Philippines.  Classification: Creole, Portuguese based 
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