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Languages of Indonesia (Papua)

See language map.
Indonesia (Papua). 2,220,934 (2000 census). Information mainly from C. Roesler 1972; C. L. Voorhoeve 1975; M. Donohue 1998–1999; SIL 1975–2003. The number of languages listed for Indonesia (Papua) is 271. Of those, 269 are living languages and 2 are second language without mother-tongue speakers.

Living languages

Abinomn

[bsa] 300 (1999 Clouse and Donohue). Lakes Plain area, from the mouth of the Baso River just east of Dabra at the Idenburg River to its headwaters in the Foya Mountains, Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Hulu Kecamatan. Alternate names: Avinomen, "Baso", Foya, Foja.  Dialects: Close to Warembori.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Abun

[kgr] 3,000 (1995 SIL). North coast and interior of central Bird's Head, north and south of Tamberau ranges. Sorong Kabupaten, Ayamaru, Sausapor, and Moraid kecamatans. About 20 villages. Alternate names: Yimbun, A Nden, Manif, Karon.  Dialects: Abun Tat (Karon Pantai), Abun Ji (Madik), Abun Je.  Classification: West Papuan, Bird's Head, North-Central Bird's Head, North Bird's Head 
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Aghu

[ahh] 3,000 (1987 SIL). South coast area along the Digul River west of the Mandobo language, Merauke Kabupaten, Jair Kecamatan. Alternate names: Djair, Dyair.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu, Aghu 
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Airoran

[air] 1,000 (1998 SIL). North coast area on the lower Apauwer River. Subu, Motobiak, Isirania and other villages, Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Hilir, and Pantai Barat kecamatans. Alternate names: Aeroran, Adora, Iriemkena.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Kwerba 
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Ambai

[amk] 10,053 (2000 WCD). On Ambai Island in Cenderawasih Bay, south of Serui Island, along the south coast of Serui Island from 136.20' to 136.45', Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Yapen Selatan, and Yapen Timur kecamatans. 10 villages. Alternate names: Ambai-Menawi.  Dialects: Randawaya, Ambai (Wadapi-Laut), Manawi. Lexical similarity 77% with Serui-Laut, 71% with Wandamen. Closely related to Ansus, Woi, Pom, Wabo, Marau, Papuma, Munggui, Kurudu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Anasi

[bpo] 2,000 (1993 Doriot). North coast area along the west bank of the lower Mamberamo River. Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Hilir Kecamatan. Alternate names: Bapu.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay 
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Ansus

[and] 4,600 (1987 SIL). Miosnum Island and the south coast of Serui Island, from 135.35' to 135.50', Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Yapen Barat Kecamatan, Ansus, Kairawi, Aibondeni, and Yenusi villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity 82% with Marau Papuma, 77% with Wandamen.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Anus

[auq] 70 (2000 Wurm). Island off north coast east of the Tor River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Bonggo Kecamatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Arandai

[jbj] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Southern Bird's Head, east and west of the Wariaga River and around the Sebyar (Timoforo) River, Manokwari Kabupaten, Bintuni Kecamatan. Alternate names: Yaban, Jaban, Dombano, Sebyar.  Dialects: Kemberano (Tomu), Dombano (Arandai). Related to Kampong Baru. Kemberano and Dombano appear to have 71% lexical similarity with each other in preliminary wordlists; probably 2 separate languages.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Eastern 
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Arguni

[agf] 150 (2000 Wurm). Northwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula on an island in the Maccluer Gulf. Alternate names: Argoeni.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai 
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As

[asz] 230 (2000 Wurm). West Bird's Head, north coast, villages of Asbakin (main center), Maklaumkarta, and Mega. Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with some dialects on Misool Island.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Asmat, Casuarina Coast

[asc] 9,000 (1991 SIL). Population includes 5,200 in Matia and 3,400 in Sapan. Casuarina coast from the Ewta River in the north to the Kuti River in the south, inland as far as 25 km from the coast in some places. Merauke Kabupaten, Pantai Kasuari Kecamatan. Alternate names: Kaweinag.  Dialects: Matia, Sapan (Safan).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro 
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Asmat, Central

[cns] 7,000 (1972 Roesler TEAM). On the south coast from the Owap River in the northwest to the Farec River in the southwest, inland toward the foothills to 210 kilometers from the coast in some areas. Merauke Kabupaten, Sawa-Erma, Agats, Atsy, and Pantai Kasuari kecamatans. Between the Kamoro and Sawi languages. Alternate names: Manowee, Jas, Yas.  Dialects: Simai (Simay), Misman, Ajam (Ayam). North Asmat is the most distinct dialect. Related to the Sempan language north of the rivers. Close to Kamoro and Citak.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro 
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Asmat, North

[nks] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Near the headwaters of the Paterle Cocq River to the west, to the Unir River to the east, to the foothills in some places, Merauke Kabupaten, Sawa-Erma Kecamatan. Alternate names: Keenok.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro 
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Asmat, Yaosakor

[asy] 2,000 (1991 SIL). South coast along the Sirac River, Merauke Kabupaten, Agats, and Atsy kecamatans. Alternate names: Yaosakor.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro 
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Atohwaim

[aqm] 1,000 (1987 SIL). South coast on the Cook and Kronkel rivers, between the Sawi and Kaygir languages. Merauke Kabupaten, Pantai Kasuari Kecamatan. Alternate names: Kaugat.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Kayagar 
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Auye

[auu] 350 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 350 (2000 Moxness SIL). Central Highlands, Siriwo River, mountains southeast of Cenderawasih Bay. Paniai Kabupaten, Napan Kecamatan. Alternate names: Auwje.  Dialects: Related to Ekari.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Ekari-Wolani-Moni 
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Awbono

[awh] 100 (1999 SIL). 100% monolinguals. South of Tokuni on the Modera River. Kvolyab is on the south coast, northwest of Korowai. Alternate names: Kvolyab.  Dialects: Not related to Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna, or highland languages like Dani or Mek. Lexical similarity 55% with Bayono.  Classification: Bayono-Awbono 
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Awera

[awr] 70 (2000 Wurm). Village at the mouth of the Wapoga River, east side of Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Waropen Bawah Kecamatan. Same community with 100 Ansus-speaking people. Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Awera 
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Awyi

[auw] 350 (2000 Wurm). Northeast near Papua New Guinea border, just south of Jayapura, Jayapura Kabupaten, Arso Kecamatan. Alternate names: Awye, Awje, Awji, Nyao, Njao.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Taikat 
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Awyu, Asue

[psa] 6,500 (2002 SIL). South coast area, southwest of Wildeman River and east of Kampong River, inland from Pirimapun. Alternate names: Miaro, Pisa, Miaro Awyu.  Dialects: Close to Edera Awyu and South Awyu. A separate language from Central Awyu and Jair Awyu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Awyu, Central

[awu] 7,500 (2002 Sohn, Myo-sook). South coast east of Bipim, northwest of Yaqay, west of Tanamerah, southwest of Boma. Merauke Kabupaten, Edera, Pantai Kasuari, Kouh, Mandobo, Asgon, and Kepi kecamatans. Alternate names: Auyu, Awya, Awju, Ajau, Avio, Nohon.  Dialects: About 9 dialects.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Awyu, Edera

[awy] 3,870 (2002 SIL). Southeast near coast, north of lower Digul River. Alternate names: Siagha, Syiagha, Sjiagha, Oser, Yenimu, Jenimu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Awyu, Jair

[awv] 2,300 (2002 SIL).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Awyu, North

[yir] 1,500 (1987 SIL). South coast west side of Digul River, south of Kombai, east of Awyu. Alternate names: Dyair, Djair, Yair, Awyu, Jair.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Awyu, South

[aws] 9,340 (2002 SIL). Southeast near coast, north of lower Digul River. Alternate names: Siagha, Syiagha, Sjiagha, Oser, Yenimu, Jenimu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Bagusa

[bqb] 300 (1987 SIL). East of Mamberamo, Lake Rombebai, north of Kauwera language. Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Tengah Kecamatan. Alternate names: Kapeso, Suaseso.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 64% with Kwerba.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Kwerba 
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Baham

[bdw] 1,100 (1987 SIL). West Bomberai Peninsula east of the Iha language. Fakfak Kabupaten, Kaimana, Fakfak, and Kokas kecamatans. Alternate names: Patimuni.  Dialects: Close to Iha.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper 
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Barapasi

[brp] 2,500 (1995 SIL). East side of Cenderawasih Bay just east of the Waropen language, along the Barapasi River and its tributaries. Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Waropen Atas Kecamatan. Alternate names: Baropasi.  Dialects: Sipisi, Marikai. Lexical similarity 67% with Kofei, 71% with Sauri, 61% with Tefaro, 64% with Woria.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay 
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Bauzi

[bvz] 1,500 (1991 SIL). 1,350 monolinguals. Around Lake Holmes near the mid-Mamberamo River, Danau Bira area, northeast, Kasonoweja north of Kustera. Jayapura and Yapen Waropen kabupatens, Mamberamo Tengah and Waropen Atas kecamatans; Vakiadi, Noiadi, Danau Bira, Solom, Kustera, Neao, Itaba villages. Alternate names: Baudi, Bauri, Baudji, Baudzi.  Dialects: Gesda Dae, Neao, Aumenefa.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay 
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Bayono

[byl] 100 (1999 SIL). South of Tokuni on the Steenboom River. Dialects: Not related to Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna, or highlands languages like Dani or Mek. Lexical similarity 55% with Awbono.  Classification: Bayono-Awbono 
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Bedoanas

[bed] 180 (2000 Wurm). Northwest coast, Bomberai Peninsula, Fakfak Kabupaten, Kokas Kecamatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai 
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Berik

[bkl] 1,200 (1994 SIL). North coast area along the mid and upper Tor River, inland from Sarmi. Jayapura Kabupaten, Tor Atas Kecamatan; Bora Bora, Waf, Doronta, Beu, Togonfo, Dangken, Kondirjan, Somanente, Tenwer, Sewan, Safrontani, and Taminambor villages. Alternate names: Berrik, Berick, Upper Tor.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 45% with Keder, 13% with Orya.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor 
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Betaf

[bfe] 500 (2000). North coast area east of Sarmi, Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Classification: Unclassified 
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Biak

[bhw] 30,000 (2000 Wurm). Islands of Biak and Numfor to the north and on numerous small islands east and west of the Bird's Head, including Mapia Island. Biak Numfor Kabupaten. Alternate names: Biak-Numfor, Noefoor, Mafoor, Mefoor, Nufoor, Mafoorsch, Myfoorsch, Noefoorsch.  Dialects: Ariom, Bo'o, Dwar, Fairi, Jenures, Korim, Mandusir, Mofu, Opif, Padoa, Penasifu, Samberi, Sampori (Mokmer), Sor, Sorendidori, Sundei, Wari, Wadibu, Sorido, Bosnik, Korido, Warsa, Wardo, Kamer, Mapia, Mios Num, Rumberpon, Monoarfu, Vogelkop. Some consider Biak and Numfor to be two languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic 
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Biga

[bhc] 300 (2001 Remijsen). Misool Island, Biga village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Biritai

[bqq] 250 (1988 SIL). Lakes Plain just north of mid-Rouffaer River, village of Biri. Alternate names: Ati, Aliki, Biri.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Obokuitai, 61% with Eritai, 60% with Kwerisa, 69% with Kai.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Bonerif

[bnv] 4 (1994 SIL). North coast area on east side of the upper Tor River, north of Mander and south of Berik and Kwesten languages, village of Beneraf. Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Alternate names: Beneraf.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor  Nearly extinct.
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Bonggo

[bpg] 600 (2000). Northeast coast east of Sarmi and west of Demta near Betaf; villages of Taronta, Tarawasi, Armopa. Jayapura Kabupaten, Bonggo Kecamatan. Alternate names: Armopa, Bgu, Bogu, Bongo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Burate

[bti] 100 (2000 Wurm). Near mouth of the Wapoga River, Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Waropen Bawah Kecamatan, 1 village. Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Demisa, 75% with Tunggare.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay 
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Burmeso

[bzu] 250 (1998 Donohue). Burmeso village and isolated temporary houses along nearby rivers, mid-Mamberamo River between Trimuris and Sikari northeast of Danau Bira (Lake Holmes). Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Tengah Kecamatan. Alternate names: Taurap, Boromeso, Borumesso, Burumeso, Monau, Monao, Manau.  Dialects: Less than 5% lexical similarity with any other languages.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Burumakok

[aip] 40 (1994 Kroneman). Lowlands area south of the main ranges, southeast of Sumo and Dekai, south of Langda and Bomela, Jayawijaya Kabupaten, Kurima Kecamatan, village of Burumakok, south of Sumtanon, east of Siradala. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Western  Nearly extinct.
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Buruwai

[asi] 1,000 (2000). South Bomberai Peninsula along the southwest part of Kamrau Bay, Fakfak Kabupaten, Kaimana Kecamatan; Yarona, Kuna, Esania, Marobia, Guriasa, Tairi, Hia, and Gaka villages. Alternate names: Asienara, Asianara, Karufa, Madidwana, Sabakor.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Kamberau.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro 
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Busami

[bsm] 700 (1993 Doriot). South and north coast, Serui Island near 136', villages of Kamanap, Masiaroti, Kaonda. Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Yapen Barat and Yapen Selatan kecamatans. Dialects: 3 dialects. Lexical similarity 71% with Ansus, 63% with Serui-Laut.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Citak

[txt] 8,000 (1985 M. Stringer TEAM). South coast area, west of the upper Digul River, north of Awyu, east of Asmat, Senggo, and north, 19 villages. Merauke Kabupaten, Citak-Mitak Kecamatan. Alternate names: Cicak, Tjitak, Tjitjak, Kaunak, Asmat Darat.  Dialects: Senggo, Komasma, Bubis, Esaun, Pirabanak, Vakam, Tiau. Close to Asmat.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro 
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Citak, Tamnim

[tml] 290 (1993 Doriot). Near Senggo, villages of Tamnim, Epem, Zinak, Wowi. Merauke Kabupaten, Citak-Mitak Kecamatan. Alternate names: Tamnim, Asmat Darat.  Dialects: May be linguistically closer to Asmat, but the speakers want to be called Citak, not Asmat.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro 
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Dabe

[dbe] 200 (1993). Upper Tor River area, north coast east of Sarmi, village of Dabe. Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Alternate names: Mangambilis.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor 
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Damal

[uhn] 14,000 (1991 UBS and 2000 Wurm). Central highlands west of the Western Dani, east of Ekari, southeast of the source of the Kemandoga River, all around Puncak Jaya, northern and southern Carstens Mountains, Paniai Kabupaten, Ilaga and Beoga kecamatans. Alternate names: Uhunduni, Amung, Amung Kal, Amungme, Amuy, Enggipiloe, Hamung, Oehoendoeni.  Dialects: Damal, Amung, Amongme, Enggipilu. Related to Ekari, Moni, Wolani.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Uhunduni 
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Dani, Lower Grand Valley

[dni] 20,000 (SIL 1996). Central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley, and upper gorge. Dialects: Lower Grand Valley Hitigima (Dani-Kurima, Kurima), Upper Bele, Lower Bele, Lower Kimbin (Kibin), Upper Pyramid.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani 
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Dani, Mid Grand Valley

[dnt] 50,000 (1990 UBS). Baliem Valley. Alternate names: Tulem, Central Grand Valley Dani, Baliem Valley Dani.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani 
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Dani, Upper Grand Valley

[dna] 20,000 (1996). Central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley, and upper gorge. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani 
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Dani, Western

[dnw] 180,000 (1993 census). Central highlands, west of Baliem Grand Valley, and east from upper Kemandoga Valley. Alternate names: Dani Barat, Ilaga Western Dani, Lani, Laany, Oeringoep, Timorini.  Dialects: Western Dani of Pyramid, Western Dani of Bokondini. Many other dialects are not as distinct as those listed. Lexical similarity 65% with Obokuitai, 60% with Wano.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani 
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Dao

[daz] 250 (1991 SIL). West central highlands, Paniai Kabupaten, Napan Kecamatan, east of Cenderawasih Bay along the Dao River. Alternate names: Maniwo, "X-Ray".  Dialects: Lexical similarity 75% with Auye.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Ekari-Wolani-Moni 
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Dem

[dem] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Western highlands along upper Rouffaer River north of Damal, northeast of Western Dani. Alternate names: Lem, Ndem.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dem 
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Demisa

[dei] 400 to 500 (2000 Wurm). First language in Desawa and Muyere villages along the coast in Waropen Bawah District and Botawa village in the interior along the Wonoi River. Reported to be the lingua franca of most of the eastern side of Cenderawasih Bay and of seminomadic people in interior Waropen Bawah. Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Burate, 64% with Kofei, 60% with Sauri, 65% with Tunggare, 64% with Woria.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay 
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Demta

[dmy] 1,300 (2000). North coast west of Tanamerah Bay, villages of Demta, Muris Besar, Muris Kecil, Ambora, Yougafsa. Alternate names: Muris.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Sentani 
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Dera

[kbv] 1,000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,687. Northeast Papua, south of Jayapura, near Waris; 13 villages. Also spoken in Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Kamberataro, Mangguar, Dra.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Senagi 
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Diuwe

[diy] 100 (1999 SIL). 12 miles southwest of Sumo, east of the Catalina River. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro 
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Doutai

[tds] 70 to 100 (2000 Wurm). Ethnic population: 335 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Lakes Plain area at Toli-Dou village, west and south of Taiyeve. Alternate names: Taori-So, Taori, Tolitai.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Dubu

[dmu] 110 (2000 Wurm). Border area south of Jayapura, south of Waris, east of Emumu, north of Towei languages, villages of Affi, Dobu, Yambe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Pauwasi, Western 
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Duriankere

[dbn] 30 (2000 Wurm). On a small island in the Raja Ampat Islands in the strait between Salawati Island and the west end of Bird's Head. Alternate names: Esaro, Sailen, Duriankari.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, Inanwatan  Nearly extinct.
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Dusner

[dsn] 20 (2000). Around the town of Dusner, west coast of Cenderawasih Bay, Wandamen Bay area. Only one village. Alternate names: Dusnir.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic  Nearly extinct.
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Duvle

[duv] 933 (2000 WCD). Lakes Plain area south of Van Daalen River and north of Mulia, Paniai. Eastern dialect along Dagai River, western dialect along Fedide and Wedi rivers. Alternate names: Duvele, Wiri, Duvde, Duvre, Duve.  Dialects: Eastern Duvle, Western Duvle. Closest to Kaiy. Little difference between dialects.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, Duvle 
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Edopi

[dbf] 1,000 (1995 SIL). Around the juncture of the Tariku (Rouffaer) and Kliki (Fou) rivers. Alternate names: Elopi, Dou, Doufou, Dosobou, Turu, Iau, Yau, Foi, Ururi, Urundi.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central 
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Eipomek

[eip] 3,000 (1987 SIL). Eastern highlands area, Eipo River, east of Nalca. Alternate names: Eipo, T-Valley.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 75% with Una.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern 
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Ekari

[ekg] 100,000 (1985 Doble). West central highlands, Paniai. Alternate names: Kapauku, Ekagi, Mee Mana, Tapiro, Me Mana.  Dialects: Simori, Yabi (Jabi), Mapiya-Kegata, Mee. Closest to Wolani. Slight dialect difference with Mapiya-Kegata.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Ekari-Wolani-Moni 
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Elseng

[mrf] 300 (1991 SIL). Jayapura Kabupaten, Arso, Abepura, Kemtuk Gresi, Senggi kecamatans, south of Jayapura, northeast of the Kaure. Alternate names: "Morwap", Janggu, Djanggu, Tabu, Sawa.  Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Morwap 
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Emumu

[enr] 1,100 (1987 SIL). Border area south of Jayapura, 11 villages. Alternate names: Kiamerop, Imimkal.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Pauwasi, Eastern 
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Eritai

[ert] 530 (2000 WCD). West of the Mamberamo River, Lakes Plain area in low mountains just south of Danau Bira (Lake Holmes), around the Kustera airstrip, to the villages of Erai to the east, Kustera, and Haya to the south. Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Tengah and Mamberamo Hulu kecamatans. Alternate names: Editode Edai, Erai, Eri, Barua, Baburiwa, Babiruwa, Babruwa, Babrua, Aliki, Haya.  Dialects: The dialect in Obogwi village is close, but not the same. Also related to Kaiy, Doutai, Biritai. Lexical similarity 76% with Obokuitai, 50% with Sikaritai.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Erokwanas

[erw] 200 (2000 Wurm). Northwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula, north of Baham language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai 
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Fayu

[fau] 350 (2000 Wurm). West of juncture of Tariku (Rouffaer) and Kliki (Fou) rivers, west of the Kirikiri language. Alternate names: Sehudate.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, West 
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Foau

[flh] 232 (1975 SIL). Foa and Mudiay village, east Lakes Plain area just north of lower Idenburg River. Alternate names: Doa.  Dialects: Close to Taworta.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, East Lakes Plain 
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Gresi

[grs] 2,500 (1987 SIL). West of Lake Sentani, southeast of Genyem, in villages of Hawa, Bring, Tabangkwari, Yansu, Ibub, Sunna, Klaysu. Alternate names: Gresik, Klesi, Glesi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 80% with Kemtuik.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Nimboran 
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Hatam

[had] 16,000 (1993 TEAM). Eastern Bird's Head, northeast of Manikion, south and southwest of Manokwari. Manokwari Kabupaten; Warmare, Ransiki, and Oransbari kecamatans. Alternate names: Hattam, Atam, Tinam, Miriei, Moi, Adihup, Uran, Borai, Mansim.  Dialects: Moi (Moire), Tinam, Miriei, Adihup, Uran.  Classification: West Papuan, Hattam 
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Hupla

[hap] 3,000 (1982 WT). Central highlands area near east side of Baliem gorge. Alternate names: Soba.  Dialects: Close to Lower Grand Valley Dani.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani 
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Iau

[tmu] 600 (2000 J. Bateman). 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600 or more. Kabupaten Puncak Jaya, Faui, Lakes Plain area between Rouffaer and upper Van Daalen rivers, villages of Barere, Fawi, and Taiyai. Poi dialect on Rouffaer River, Turu dialect on Van Daalen River. Alternate names: Foi, Urundi, Ururi, Yau, Turu, Iaw.  Dialects: Foi, Turu, Iau. Close to Edopi. Distinct from Turu (Yawa). The varieties listed as dialects above may be separate languages.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central 
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Iha

[ihp] 5,500 (1987 SIL). Bomberai Peninsula, far west end around Fak Fak and north. Alternate names: Kapaur.  Dialects: Close to Baham.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper 
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Iha Based Pidgin

[ihb]  Bomberai Peninsula, far west end around Fak Fak and north. Classification: Pidgin, Iha based 
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Irarutu

[irh] 4,000 (1987 SIL). East Bomberai Peninsula southwest from Arguni Bay north to Bintuni Bay, 44 villages. Alternate names: Irahutu, Irutu, Kasira, Arguni Bay, Kaitero.  Dialects: 6 or 7 dialects. Lexical similarity 90% with Kuri.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera 
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Iresim

[ire] 70 (2000 Wurm). South Cenderawasih Bay, west of Nabire and around Yamur Lake. Alternate names: Beduba, Yerisiam.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Iresim 
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Isirawa

[srl] 1,800 (2000 Wurm). Jayapura, north coast, around Sarmi and to the west, the villages of Mararena, Kamenawari, Amsira, Siaratesa, Perkami, Martewar, Arsania, Nisero, Arabais, Webro, Wari, Nuerawar, and Waim. Alternate names: Saweri, Saberi, Okwasar.  Dialects: Western Isirawa, Eastern Isirawa. Close to Kwerba. The dialects are very close.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Isirawa 
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Itik

[itx] 80 (2000 Wurm). North coast east of Tor River, along upper Biri River. Alternate names: Ittik, Betef, Ittik-Tor, Borto.  Dialects: Ittik, Ittik-Tor.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor 
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Iwur

[iwo] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Border area in valley of Iwur River, Ok Iwur, and east to Ok Denom. Alternate names: Iwoer.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland 
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Kaburi

[uka] 600 (1986 SIL). Southern Bird's Head, east of Kemberano and Arandai languages, north of Kokoda and Fakfak, Manokwari Kabupaten, Merdei and Inanwatan kecamatans. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Western 
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Kais

[kzm] 700 (1993 Doriot). South Bird's Head area inland along Kais River, 8 villages. Alternate names: Aiso, Atori, Mintamani, Kampung Baru.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Western 
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Kaiy

[tcq] 220 (2000 Wurm). Lakes Plain area around airstrip of Kaiy on lower Rouffaer River, villages of Kaiy and Kokou. Alternate names: Taori-Kaiy, Taori-Kei, Kai, Todi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Biritai.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Kalabra

[kzz] 3,287 (2000 WCD). West Bird's Head, south of Madik language, east of Moi. Alternate names: Beraur.  Dialects: Closest to Tehit. Lexical similarity 60% with Tehit.  Classification: West Papuan, Bird's Head, West Bird's Head 
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Kamberau

[irx] 1,570 (1993 Doriot). Southeast Bomberai Peninsula around Kamrau Bay, villages of Ubia-Seramuku, Bahomia, Waho, Wamoma, Inari, Tanggaromi, Koi, Wamesa, Coa. Alternate names: Kamrau, Iria.  Dialects: Close to Buruwai. Lexical similarity 60% with Buruwai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro 
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Kamoro

[kgq] 8,000 (1987 SIL). South coast from Etna Bay to Mukamuga River. Alternate names: Kamora, Mimika, Lakahia, Nagramadu, Umari, Mukamuga, Neferipi, Nefarpi, Nafarpi, Kaokonau, Umar.  Dialects: Tarya, Yamur, Nanesa. 4 other dialects.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro 
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Kanum, Bädi

[khd] 10 (1996 Mark Donohue). South coast border area, east of Merauke, bordering Southeast Marind on the east: Yanggandur, Tomer, Tomerau, Sota, Kondo, Onggaya, north and west of Smärky language. Alternate names: Enkelembu, Knwne, Kenume.  Dialects: Intelligible to other Kanum variety speakers only with difficulty. Close to Yei. It has also been classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Tonda  Nearly extinct.
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Kanum, Ngkâlmpw

[kcd] 150 (1996 Mark Donohue). South coast border area, east of Merauke, bordering Southeast Marind on the east: Yanggandur, Tomer, Tomerau, Sota, Kondo, Onggaya to the north and west of Smärky language. Alternate names: Enkelembu, Knwne, Kenume.  Dialects: The Kanum varieties are separate languages, intelligible to each other's speakers only with difficulty. Close to Yei. It has also been classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Tonda 
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Kanum, Smärky

[kxq] 80 (1996 Mark Donohue). South coast border area, east of Merauke, bordering Southeast Marind on the east: Yanggandur, Tomer, Tomerau, Sota, Kondo, Onggaya, bordering Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Enkelembu, Knwne, Kenume.  Dialects: Intelligible to other speakers Kanum varieties only with difficulty. Close to Yei. It has also been classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Tonda 
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Kanum, Sota

[krz] 100 (1996 Mark Donohue). South coast border area, east of Merauke, bordering Southeast Marind on the east: Yanggandur, Tomer, Tomerau, Sota, Kondo, Onggaya, north and west of Smärky language. Alternate names: Enkelembu, Knwne, Kenume.  Dialects: Intelligible to other Kanum variety speakers only with difficulty. Close to Yei. It has also been classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Tonda 
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Kapori

[khp] 30 to 40 (2000 Wurm). Village of Pagai on north bank of upper Idenburg River. Alternate names: Kapauri.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kaure  Nearly extinct.
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Karas

[kgv] 100 (2000 Wurm). Karas Island, off southwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula, southeast from Fak Fak. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, West Bomberai, Karas 
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Karon Dori

[kgw] 5,000 (1987 SIL). Central Bird's Head north of Brat, villages of Pef, Asses, Sunopi, Siakwa. Alternate names: Maiyach, Meon, Mari.  Dialects: Close to Mai Brat.  Classification: West Papuan, Bird's Head, North-Central Bird's Head, Central Bird's Head 
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Kaure

[bpp] 450 (1995 SIL). Southwest of Lake Sentani along Nawa River, in villages of Lereh, Harna, Wes, Masta, Aurina. Alternate names: Kaureh.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kaure, Kaure Proper 
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Kauwera

[xau] 400 (1987 SIL). East of mid-Mamberamo, north and south of Kasonaweja. Alternate names: Kauwerawec, Kauwerawetj, Kaowerawedj, Kawera, Kabera, Koassa, Tekutameso.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Kwerba 
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Kawe

[kgb] 600 (2001 Remijsen). West end of Waigeo Island off west coast of Bird's Head, Raja Ampat Islands, villages of Salio, Selepele, Bianci, Menyefun. Dialects: Related to Maya, Maden, Palamul, Matbat.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Kayagar

[kyt] 10,000 (1993 WT). South coast near Pirimapun and Sawi, Merauke area. Alternate names: Kaygir, Kajagar, Kaygi, Wiyagar.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Kayagar 
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Kayupulau

[kzu] 50 (2000 Wurm). Ethnic population: 573 (1978 SIL). Villages of Kayubatu and Kayupulau in Jayapura harbor. Alternate names: Kajupulau.  Dialects: Not a dialect of Tobati (Yotafa).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay 
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Keder

[kdy] 180 (2000 Wurm). Ethnic population: 600 (1973 SIL). North coast east of Tor River mouth. Dialects: Lexical similarity 45% with Berik.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor 
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Kehu

[khh] 25 (2002 SIL). Area between Auye and Dao who live in the foothills, and the Wapoga River. Classification: Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Kemberano

[bzp] 1,500 (1987 SIL). Southern Bird's Head along the coast, east of Komundan River, south of Arandai language. Several villages also northwest Bomberai Peninsula, south from Kalitami across Bintuni Bay. Alternate names: Kalitami, Wariagar, Barau, Arandai.  Dialects: Barau, Weriagar. Lexical similarity 85% with Arandai, 60% with Kokoda.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Eastern 
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Kembra

[xkw] 20 (2000 Wurm). Jayawijaya Kabupaten, Okbibab Kecamatan, east of the Sogber River. Classification: Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Kemtuik

[kmt] 2,500 (1987 SIL). West of Lake Sentani, villages of Mamdayawang, Meikari, Merem, Yanim, Braso, Aib, Sabransamon, Mamda, Sabeyap, Sabeyap Kecil, Sekorup, Aimbe, Sabron Yaru. East of Gresi language. Alternate names: Kemtuk, Kamtuk.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 80% between Kemtuik and Gresi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Nimboran 
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Ketengban

[xte] 9,968 (2000 WCD). Scattered slopes in eastern highlands area east of Eipomek and west of Ngalum language near Papua New Guinea border. Alternate names: Kupel, Oktengban.  Dialects: Okbap, Omban, Bime, Onya. Lexical similarity 69% with Una.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern 
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Ketum

[ktt] 100 (2001 SIL). 99% monolinguals. Arimbit village, plus some in forest. Dialects: Lexical similarity 49% with Wambon.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Unclassified 
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Kimaama

[kig] 3,000 (1987 SIL). Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) Island west of southeast Papua. Ngolar II, village 10 km east of Marauke, is all Kimaama. Alternate names: Kimaghama, Kaladdarsch, Teri-Kalwasch.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom 
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Kimki

[sbt] 350 (1978 UFM). Border area where Sepik River enters Papua. Alternate names: Aipki, Kimgi, Sukubatom, Sukubatong.  Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Biksi 
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Kirikiri

[kiy] 250 (1982 SIL). Most are monolingual. West of juncture of the Tariku (Rouffaer) and Kliki (Fou) rivers, villages at Dofu Wahuka, Paniai. Alternate names: Kirira.  Dialects: Kirikiri, Faia.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, West 
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Kofei

[kpi] 100 (2000 Wurm). East side of Geelvink Bay, recently moved to Sauri-Sirami village. There may be more living seminomadically in the interior. Dialects: Lexical similarity 67% with Barapasi, 64% with Demisa, 76% with Sauri, 63% with Woria.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay 
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Kokoda

[xod] 3,700 (1991 SIL). Bird's Head, south coast on Maccluer Gulf, east of Inanwatan. Alternate names: Samalek, Oderago, Komudago, Nebes, Tarof, Kasuweri.  Dialects: Kasuweri (Komudago), Negri Besar (Negeri Besar), Tarof. Wurm and Hattori 1981 list Kasuweri and Tarof as separate languages. Komudago and Tarof are closest. Lexical similarity 60% with Kemberano. Kasuweri lexical similarity 86% with Tarof, Negri Besar 82% with Tarof.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Central 
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Kombai

[tyn] 4,000 (1991 SIL). South coast area east of Senggo around Boma. Alternate names: Komboy.  Dialects: Central Kombai, Tayan. Close to Wambon, Mandobo Atas, Mandobo Bawah, Wanggom.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut 
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Komyandaret

[kzv] 300 (2000 SIL). East of Korowai and north of Tsaukambo, Wanggom language areas. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Unclassified 
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Konda

[knd] 500 (1988 SIL). Southwest Bird's Head along lower Waromge River south of Teminabuan, villages of Konda and Teminabuan District. Alternate names: Ogit, Yabin-Konda, Yabin.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 61% with Yahadian.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, Konda-Yahadian 
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Koneraw

[kdw] 200 (2000 Wurm). South coast of Frederik Hendrik Island. Alternate names: Konorau.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Mombum 
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Kopkaka

[opk] 400 (2002 SIL). Lowlands area south of the main ranges, southeast of Sumo and Dekai, south of Langda and Bomela, Jayawijaya Kabupaten, Kurima Kecamatan, villages of Siradala and Burungmakok. Alternate names: Kopka.  Dialects: Marub, Tokuni. Close to Kwer.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Western 
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Korowai

[khe] 700 (1998 M. Donohue). South coast area, north of Boma, east of Senggo. Alternate names: Kolufaup.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Unclassified 
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Korowai, North

[krg] 100 (1998 M. Donohue). North of Korowai area, southeast of Siradala, west of Awimbon. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Unclassified 
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Korupun-Sela

[kpq] 8,000 (1996 E. Young). Eastern highlands on upper reaches of Erok River, southwest of Nalca, east of Yali of Ninia, Jayawijaya District, Kurima Region. Alternate names: Korapun, Kimyal of Korupun.  Dialects: Korupun (Duram), Dagi, Sisibna (Gobugdua), Deibula, Sela. Related to Nalca. Lexical similarity 60% to Nipsan.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western 
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Kosadle

[kiq] 250 (1993 Doriot). Hulu Atas just west of juncture of Nawa and Idenburg rivers. Alternate names: Kosare.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kaure, Kaure Proper 
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Kowiai

[kwh] 600 (2000 SIL). Bomberai Peninsula; southwest coast at Kaimana and in Kamrau Bay on several islands, villages of Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota, Waikala, Kayumerah. Alternate names: Koiwai, Kaiwai, Kuiwai, Aiduma, Kayumerah, Kajumerah, Adi, Namatota, Namatote.  Dialects: Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota, Waikala. Blust says this is Central Malayo-Polynesian.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, South Bomberai 
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Kuri

[nbn] 500 (1982 SIL). Southwest Bomberai Peninsula, along Nabi (Kuri) River west from Wandamen Bay, 16 villages. Alternate names: Modan, Nabi.  Dialects: Close to Irarutu. Lexical similarity 90% with Irarutu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Unclassified 
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Kurudu

[kjr] 2,180 (1993 Doriot). Kurudu Island between eastern tip of Serui Island and mainland of Papua to east, villages of Kaipuri, Poiwai. Dialects: Kaipuri dialect has highest lexical similarity with Yapen group. Lexical similarity 71% with Wabo, 46% with Western Serui.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East 
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Kwer

[kwr] 100 (1998 M. Donohue). Lowlands area south of the main ranges, southeast of Sumo and Dekai, south of Langda and Bomela, Jayawijaya Kabupaten, Kurima Kecamatan, village of Kwer. Dialects: Close to Kopkaka.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Western 
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Kwerba

[kwe] 2,500 (1996 SIL). Upper Tor River area, northeast, headwaters of Apauwer River inland from Sarmi east to Berik language, villages of Aurime, Munukania, Wamariri, Tatsewalem around Apiaweti. Alternate names: Airmati, Naibedj, Tekutameso, Armati, Mataweja, Segar Tor, Serikenam, Koassa.  Dialects: Serikenam, Sasawa, Nogukwabai. Lexical similarity 64% with Bagusa.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Kwerba 
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Kwerba Mamberamo

[xwr] 300 (1993 Doriot). East of Mamberamo River, in the mountains between the villages of Kwerba, Edifalen, and Marinafalen, south of Kasonaweja. Alternate names: Nopukw, Nopuk, Nobuk, Napok, Tatsewalem, Nogukwabai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Kwerba 
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Kwerisa

[kkb] 15 to 50 (2000 Wurm). At village of Kaiy on lower Rouffaer River. Alternate names: Taogwe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Biritai.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East  Nearly extinct.
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Kwesten

[kwt] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Lower Tor River, north coast area inland east of Sarmi, villages of Holmhaven, Mafenter, Arare, Omte. Dialects: Lexical similarity 40% with Berik.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor 
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Legenyem

[lcc] 250 (2000 Wurm). Raja Ampat Islands, Waigeo Island in northwest end of main bay and on south coast, villages of Beo, Lempintol, and Wawiai. Alternate names: Laganyan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Lepki

[lpe] 530 (1991 SIL). Jayawijaya Kabupaten, Okbibab Kecamatan, on the Sogber River, east and north of the Ketengban. Classification: Unclassified 
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Liki

[lio] 100 (1998 M. Donohue). Islands off north coast of Sarmi, Jayapura Kabupaten, Sarmi Kecamatan. Alternate names: Moar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Maden

[xmx] 600 (2001 Remijsen). Raja Ampat Islands, western Salawati Island. Alternate names: Sapran, Saparan, Palamul.  Dialects: Kawait.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Mai Brat

[ayz] 20,000 (1987 SIL). Central Bird's Head around Ayamaru Lakes, about 40 villages. Alternate names: Ayamaru, Ajamaru, Brat, Maibrat, Mey Brat, Atinjo, Majbrat, Maite.  Dialects: Maisawiet, Maiyah, Maimaka, Maite, Maisefa. Lexical similarity 10% with Tehit, Mpur, Abun, its closest neighbors.  Classification: West Papuan, Bird's Head, North-Central Bird's Head, Central Bird's Head 
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Mairasi

[zrs] 3,300 (1996 SIL). Bomberai Peninsula, southwest coast of neck, east and northeast from Kaimana, Wasior, Triton Bay. Alternate names: Faranyao, Kaniran.  Dialects: Northeastern Mairasi. Close to Semimi. Northeastern Mairasi may be a separate language. Lexical similarity 69% with Semimi, 61% with Mer.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Mairasi-Tanahmerah, Mairasi 
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Maklew

[mgf] 120. South coast area, east side of Marianne strait, west of Marind and east of Yelmek languages. Alternate names: Makleu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Bulaka River 
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Mander

[mqr] 20 (1991 SIL). North coast area on the upper Bu River, a tributary of the Upper Tor River. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor  Nearly extinct.
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Mandobo Atas

[aax] 1,000 (2002 SIL). Border area near Fly River on east side of Digul River between Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah. Alternate names: Nub, Dumut, "Kaeti", Kwem, Mandobbo, Kambon, Wambon.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut 
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Mandobo Bawah

[bwp] 2,000 (2002 SIL). Border area near Fly River on east side of Digul River between Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah, villages of Getentiri, Anggai, Butiptiri, Subur, Aiwat, Kaisah. Alternate names: Nub, Dumut, "Kaeti", Mandobbo, Kambon.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut 
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Manem

[jet] 400 in Indonesia (1978 SIL). Northeast border area south of Jayapura, villages of Wembi, Yeti, Kiba. Alternate names: Yeti, Jeti, Wembi, Skofro.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris 
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Manikion

[mnx] 12,000 (1987 SIL). East Bird's Head, east of Meyah, south of Manokwari, about 50 villages. Alternate names: Mantion, Sougb, Sogh.  Dialects: 4 dialects.  Classification: East Bird's Head 
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Mapia

[mpy] 1. Mapia Islands, about 180 miles north of Manokwari. Alternate names: Mapian.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic  Nearly extinct.
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Marau

[mvr] 1,700 (1987 SIL). South coast of Serui Island, 5 villages. Dialects: Warabori (Natabui, Warembori). Lexical similarity 82% with Pom, Munggui, Papuma, Ansus.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Maremgi

[mrx] 40 (2000 Wurm). North coast inland from Bonggo language, village of Marengge. Alternate names: Marengge.  Dialects: Unintelligible to speakers in neighboring settlements including Bonggo.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor  Nearly extinct.
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Marind

[mrz] 7,000 (1987 SIL). South coast around Merauke, 2 villages. Alternate names: Southeast Marind, Holifoersch, Tugeri, Gawir.  Dialects: Gawir, Southeast Marind, Tugeri, Halifoersch. 4 or more dialects. Significant differences between inland and coastal dialects, but speakers report intelligibility.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Marind Proper 
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Marind, Bian

[bpv] 2,900 (2002 Sohn, Myo-sook). Bian River area near Merauke, Merauke Kabupaten, Muting Kecamatan, and Sanayu village on Maro River. Alternate names: Boven-Mbian, Bian, Northwest Marind.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Marind.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Marind Proper 
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Masimasi

[ism] 200 (1973 SIL). Island off north coast east of the Tor River mouth, Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Massep

[mvs] 25 (2000 Wurm). North coast east of Mamberamo River mouth and west of Sarmi, near Apauwer River. Alternate names: Masep, Wotaf, Potafa.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Massep  Nearly extinct.
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Matbat

[xmt] 1,250 (2001 Remijsen). Raja Ampat Islands, Misool Island, Segaf Islands. Alternate names: Me.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Mawes

[mgk] 693 (1975 SIL). Northeast coast east of Sarmi near mouth of Wirowai River, villages of Mawes, Mawesweres, Mawesdai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Mawes 
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Ma'ya

[slz] 4,000 (2001 Remijsen). Raja Ampat Islands, central Waigeo Island and central Salawati Island. Alternate names: Salawati, Samate, Sailolof.  Dialects: Ma'ya, Banlol, Batanta Island.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Mekwei

[msf] 1,200 (1987 SIL). West of Lake Sentani, villages of Maribu, Waibrong, Kendate, Sabron Dosay. Alternate names: Menggei, Munggai, Mungge, Demenggong-Waibron-Bano, Menggwei, Munkei, Mooi, Moi, Waipu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Kemtuik.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Nimboran 
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Meoswar

[mvx] 250 (1993 Doriot). Meoswar Island, west Cenderawasih Bay. Alternate names: War.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic 
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Mer

[mnu] 85 (2000 WCD). Central Bird's Head, headwaters of Wosimi and Uremo rivers. Alternate names: Muri, Miere.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 63% with Semimi, 61% with Mairasi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Mairasi-Tanahmerah, Mairasi 
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Meyah

[mej] 14,783 (2000 WCD). East Bird's Head, north coast, west of Manokwari, north of Hattam language, and scattered locations. Alternate names: Meax, Meyach, Meah, Mejah, Mejach, Arfak, Mansibaber.  Dialects: Closest to Manikion.  Classification: East Bird's Head, Meax 
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Mlap

[kja] 300 (2000 Wurm). West of Lake Sentani, just north of Gresi language. Alternate names: Kwansu, Kwansu-Bonggrang, Kuangsu-Bonggrang, Kwangsu-Bonggrang.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Kemtuik.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Nimboran 
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Moi

[mxn] 4,600 (1993 Doriot). Salawati Island, west Bird's Head around Sorong, 9 villages. Alternate names: Mosana, Mooi, Mekwei.  Classification: West Papuan, Bird's Head, West Bird's Head 
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Molof

[msl] 200 (1978 SIL). South of Jayapura, west of Waris. Alternate names: Ampas.  Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Molof 
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Mombum

[mso] 250 (1993 Doriot). Island next to southeast coast of Fredrik Hendrik Island. Alternate names: Kemelom, Kemelomsch, Komolom.  Dialects: Closest to Koneraw.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Mombum 
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Momina

[mmb] 200 (1998 M. Donohue). Lowlands just south of main ranges extending from south of Silimo east to south of Una language, Samboka village. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Momuna 
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Momuna

[mqf] 2,000 (2000 Wurm). 2,000 monolinguals. Lowlands just south of main ranges extending from south of Silimo east to south of Una language. Alternate names: Somahai, Somage, Sumohai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Momuna 
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Moni

[mnz] 20,000 (1991 SIL). Central highlands, 10 to 70 miles northeast of Lake Paniai. Alternate names: Migani, Djonggunu, Jonggunu.  Dialects: Awembak (Awembiak).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Ekari-Wolani-Moni 
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Mor

[mhz] 700 (1987 SIL). Mor Islands in east Cenderawasih Bay near Nabire. Alternate names: Austronesian Mor.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Mor 
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Mor

[moq] 20 to 30 (2000 Wurm). Northwest Bomberai Peninsula, coast of Bintuni Bay. Alternate names: Mor2.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Mor  Nearly extinct.
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Moraid

[msg] 1,000 (1988 SIL). West Bird's Head, east of Moi and south of Madik languages, villages of Sailala, Makbon, Luwelala, Seni. Classification: West Papuan, Bird's Head, West Bird's Head 
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Morori

[mok] 50 (1998 M. Donohue). Ethnic population: 250 (1998 M. Donohue). South coast border area 20 km east of Merauke, east of Marind, west of Kanum. Alternate names: Moraori, Moaraeri, Morari, Marori.  Dialects: Menge dialect remembered as the language of ceremony, though the last Menge speaker died in 1997.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Moraori 
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Moskona

[mtj] 8,000 (1996 SIL). Southeast Bird's Head, south of Meyah and west of Manikion. Alternate names: Sabena, Meninggo, Meningo, Meyah.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 85% with Meyah. Also related to Manikion.  Classification: East Bird's Head, Meax 
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Mpur

[akc] 7,000 (1993). North coast of Bird's Head, west of Manokwari, and Kebar Valley. Alternate names: Kebar, Amberbaken, Ekware, Dekwambre.  Dialects: Sirir, Ajiw.  Classification: West Papuan, Kebar 
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Munggui

[mth] 800 (1982 SIL). North coast of Serui Island near 135.50', villages of Munggui, Windesi, Murui, Asei Puramati. Alternate names: Natabui.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 82% with Marau, Papuma.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Murkim

[rmh]  Jayawijaya Kabupaten, Kiwirok Kecamatan, border area around the Mot airstrip, near the headwaters of the Sepik River. Classification: Unclassified 
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Muyu, North

[kti] 8,000 (2002 SIL). South coast border area just north of where Fly River forms border between Papua, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Yongom, Yonggom, Yongkom, North Kati, North Moejoe, Niinati, Ninatie, Kati-Ninanti, Kataut.  Dialects: Kanggewot, Toemoetoe (Are).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland 
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Muyu, South

[kts] 4,000 (2002 SIL). South coast border area just north of where Fly River forms border between Papua, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Yongom, Yonggom, Yongkom, South Kati, South Moejoe, Digoel, Digul, Metomka, Kati Metomka, Ok Bari.  Dialects: Metomka.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland 
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Nafri

[nxx] 1,630 (1975 SIL). Nafri village, southeast end of Yotafa Bay, Jayapura area. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Sentani, Sentani Proper 
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Nakai

[nkj] 700 (1999 Mark Donohue). East of the upper Digul River, Awimbom village in the center of 5 other villages extending toward Ok Sibil to the northeast, and a little way to the southwest toward Iwur. No settlement on the west side of the Digul River, with a large unpopulated area between Nakai and Burumakok. Alternate names: Nagai, Na'i, Na'ai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain 
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Nalca

[nlc] 11,092 (2000 WCD). Eastern highlands area on north slopes of ranges northeast of Korupun and southeast of Nipsan. Alternate names: Hmanggona, Naltje, Naltya, Hmonono, Kimyal, Kimjal.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 59% with Yale, Kosarek.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western 
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Narau

[nxu] 80 to 90 (2000 Wurm). Kecamatan Kaureh, Jayapura area. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kaure, Kaure Proper 
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Ndom

[nqm] 1,200 (2002 SIL). Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) Island. Dialects: Closest to Kimaama, Riantana.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom 
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Nduga

[ndx] 10,000 (1985 Mary Owen CMA). Jayawijaya, Tiom, central highlands, south of high ranges, south of Western Dani, north of Asmat. Widely scattered. Alternate names: Ndugwa, Ndauwa, Dauwa, Dawa, Pesechem, Pesecham, Pesegem.  Dialects: Sinak Nduga, Hitadipa Nduga.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Ngalik-Nduga 
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Ngalum

[szb] 10,000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL). Population total all countries: 18,000. Valleys of Ok Sibil, Ok Tsop, and perhaps Ok Bon, border area in main range north of Muyu (Yongkom) and Iwur languages, northeast of Nakai. Also spoken in Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Sibil.  Dialects: Ngalum, Apmisibil, Sibil.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain 
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Nggem

[nbq] 3,000 (1991 SIL). Along the middle Haflifoeri River, north of Wamena. Dialects: Close to Walak. Lexical similarity 50% with Western Dani.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani 
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Nimboran

[nir] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,500 (1987 SIL). North Papua, due west of Lake Sentani, about 26 villages. Alternate names: Nambrong.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 40% with Kemtuik.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Nimboran 
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Ninggerum

[nxr] 1,000 in Indonesia. Border area and in Papua New Guinea between the Ok Birim and Ok Tedi rivers. Alternate names: Ninggrum, Ninggirum, Ninggeroem, Kativa, Kasiwa, Orgwo, Muyu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland 
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Nipsan

[nps] 2,500 (1993 Doriot). Jayawijaya, Kurima, just west of Hmanggona. Alternate names: Southern Jale, Yale-Nipsan.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 78% with Yale, Kosarek, 59% with Nalca.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western 
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Nisa

[njs] 500 (1987 SIL). Inland from east side of Geelvink Bay around Danau Nisa. Alternate names: Bonefa, Kerema.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay 
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Obokuitai

[afz] 120 (2000 Wurm). Lakes Plain just north of mid-Rouffaer River, village of Obogwi. Alternate names: Obogwitai, Ati, Aliki.  Dialects: Related to Doutai, Biritai, Sikaritai. Lexical similarity 78% with Eritai, 69% with Biritai.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Onin

[oni] 500 (2000 Wurm). North and northwest Bomberai Peninsula. Alternate names: Onim, Sepa.  Dialects: Nikuda, Ogar, Patipi, Sepa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai 
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Onin Based Pidgin

[onx]  Onin Peninsula. Classification: Pidgin, Onin based 
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Ormu

[orz] 500 (2000 Wurm). North coast area just west of Jayapura, villages of Ormu Besar and Ormu Kecil, north of the Cyclops Mountains. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay 
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Orya

[ury] 1,600 (1985 Philip Fields SIL). Population includes 900 in Unurum-Guay, 100 in Kecamatan Bonggo, 600 in Kecamatan Lereh. Kecamatan District, Unurum-Guay, Kecamatan Bonggo, Kecamatan Lereh in the villages of Taja, Witi, and Wamho (formerly of Orya). Alternate names: Uria, Warpok, Warpu, Oria.  Dialects: Barat (West Orya), Timur (East Orya), Yapsi-Taja. Slight dialect differences.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Orya 
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Papasena

[pas] 400 (1982 SIL). Lakes Plain area on lower Idenburg River just east of juncture with Rouffaer River. Dialects: Lexical similarity 23% with Sikaritai.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Papuma

[ppm] 600 (1982 SIL). South coast of Serui Island near 135.50', village of Papuma. Dialects: Lexical similarity 82% with Munggui, Marau, Ansus.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Podena

[pdn] 200 (1954 A. C. van der Leeden ms.). Island off north coast of Biri River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Bonggo Kecamatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Pom

[pmo] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Miosnum Island and west Serui Island, villages of Pom, Serewen, Mias Endi. Dialects: Jobi.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Puragi

[pru] 700 (1991 SIL). Southwest Bird's Head along Maccluer Gulf, inland around Matamani River. Alternate names: Mogao.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Western 
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Rasawa

[rac] 200 (1987 SIL). Two villages near the southern coast of Waropen Bawah District. Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi 
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Riantana

[ran] 1,100 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Frederik Hendrik Island. Alternate names: Kimaam.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom 
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Roon

[rnn] 1,100 (1993 Doriot). Roon Island west of Cenderawasih Bay, north of Wandamen Peninsula. Alternate names: Ron.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Samarokena

[tmj] 400 (1982 SIL). North coast inland just east of Apawar River, west of Sarmi, villages of Karfasia, Samarkena, Maseb, Tamaya. Alternate names: Samarkena, Karfasia, Tamaya, Tamaja.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Samarokena 
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Saponi

[spi] 4 to 5 (2000 Wurm). Botawa village, interior Waropen Bawah District. Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi  Nearly extinct.
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Sauri

[srt] 100 (1987 SIL). East side of Cenderawasih Bay near Waropen language, in Sauri-Sirami village, near Sirami River. Dialects: Lexical similarity 71% with Barapasi, 60% with Demisa, 76% with Kofei, 63% with Tefaro.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay 
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Sause

[sao] 250 (2000 Wurm). Southwest of Sentani, northwest of Lereh, villages of Ures, Mubararon, Sause-Bokoko, Witti-Yadow, Lidya, Puaral. Alternate names: Seuce.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Unclassified 
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Saweru

[swr] 300 (1991 SIL). Central Serui Island, Serui Waropen Kabupaten, Yapen Selatan Kecamatan, on an island south of Yapen Island near Serui. Classification: Geelvink Bay, Yawa 
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Sawi

[saw] 3,500 (1993 Doriot). Merauke, Atsy, near south coastal lowland, between Kronkel and Ayip rivers and upper Fayit River area, villages of Kamur, Esebor, Wiagas, Minahai, Comoro. Alternate names: Sawuy, Aejauroh.  Dialects: Closest to Awyu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Sawi 
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Seget

[sbg] 1,200 (1988 SIL). West Bird's Head southwest of Sorong, west and southwest of Moi language, villages of Walian, Sailolof, Segum, Seget. Classification: West Papuan, Bird's Head, West Bird's Head 
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Sekar

[skz] 450 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Northwest Bomberai Peninsula on coast and one small island. Alternate names: Seka.  Dialects: Arguni has the highest percentage of lexical similarity with Sekar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai 
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Semimi

[etz] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Bomberai Peninsula close to Kaniran, south part of neck extending west to Triton Bay. Alternate names: Etna Bay, Wesrau, Muri.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Mairasi, 63% with Mer.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Mairasi-Tanahmerah, Mairasi 
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Sempan

[xse] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Middle south coast, between Kokonao and Agats, east of Kamoro and west of Asmat languages. Alternate names: Nararapi.  Dialects: Close to Kamoro and Nefarpi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro 
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Senggi

[snu] 100 (2000 Wurm). Border area south of Jayapura, villages of Senggi and Tomfor. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris 
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Sentani

[set] 30,000 (1996 SIL). Few monolinguals. Around Lake Sentani, about 30 villages. Also scattered in the rest of Papua and a few other parts of Indonesia. Alternate names: Buyaka.  Dialects: East Sentani, West Sentani, Central Sentani. Lexical similarity 30% with Tabla.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Sentani, Sentani Proper 
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Serui-Laut

[seu] 1,200 (1987 SIL). South central Serui Island and Nau Island south of Serui, 5 villages. Alternate names: Arui.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 82% with Ansus, 77% with Ambai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Sikaritai

[tty] 800 (1993 Doriot). Lakes Plain area just north of junction of Idenburg and Rouffaer rivers, along Mamberamo River, and west 15 miles, south 10 miles, villages of Sikari, Haya, Iri. Alternate names: Aikwakai, Tori Aikwakai, Sikari, Ati, Tori, Araikurioko.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 86% with Eritai.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Silimo

[wul] 5,000 (1987 SIL). 50% monolinguals. Central highlands south of the range immediately west of the Baliem River, Amo, Kiniage valleys. Alternate names: South Ngalik, Paiyage, Usak, Wulik.  Dialects: Lower Samenage.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Ngalik-Nduga 
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Skou

[skv] 700 (1999 M. Donohue). North coast border area east of Jayapura, at the mouth of the Tami River, villages of Sko-Yambe, Sko-Mabu, Sko-Sai. Alternate names: Sko, Skouw, Skow, Sekou, Tumawo, Te Mawo, Sekol, Sukou.  Dialects: Related to Vanimo, Wutung, Yako.  Classification: Sko, Vanimo 
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Sobei

[sob] 1,000 (2000 Wurm). Ethnic population: 1,850 (2000 D. Tryon). North coast area east of Sarmi, Jayapura Kabupaten, Sarmi Kecamatan. Alternate names: Biga, Imasi, Liki.  Dialects: Reported to be the same as, or intelligible with, Liki.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Sowanda

[sow] 212 in Indonesia (2002 SIL). Northeast border area south of Jayapura. Alternate names: Waina, Wina, Wanya, Wanja, Waina-Sowanda.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris 
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Suabo

[szp] 1,100 (1987 SIL). South Bird's Head along Maccluer Gulf, 15 villages. Alternate names: Suabau, Inanwatan, Mirabo, Iagu.  Dialects: Closest to Duriankere.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, Inanwatan 
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Tabla

[tnm] 3,750 (1990 UBS). Jayapura, Demta, Depapre, 13 villages on north coast east and west of Tanahmerah Bay. Alternate names: Tepera, Tanah Merah, Tabi, Tanahmerah 2, Jakari.  Dialects: Yokari, Tepera, Yewena-Yongsu. Yokari dialect understood by other dialects at 80% to 95%, others have 95% to 100% intelligibility of each other. Tabla has 30% lexical similarity with Sentani (closest).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Sentani, Sentani Proper 
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Taikat

[aos] 500 (2000 Wurm). Northeast border area, straight south of Jayapura. Alternate names: Tajkat, Arso.  Dialects: Closest to Awyi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Taikat 
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Tamagario

[tcg] 3,500 (1987 SIL). South coast area between Gondu and Bapai rivers. Alternate names: Buru, Tamaraw, Wagow.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Kayagar 
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Tanahmerah

[tcm] 500 (1978 SIL). North Bomberai Peninsula along the Gondu and Bapai rivers. Alternate names: Sumeri, Sumerine.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Mairasi-Tanahmerah, Tanahmerah 
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Tandia

[tni] 2 (1991 SIL). Bird's Head neck area just south of Wandamen Peninsula along Wohsimi River. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Tandia  Nearly extinct.
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Tangko

[tkx] 85 (2000 WCD).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok 
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Tarpia

[suf] 300 (2000 Wurm). North coast area near Demta, villages of Tarfia and Kaptiau, Jayapura Kabupaten, Demta and Bonggo kecamatans. Alternate names: Kaptiauw, Kapitiauw, Tarfia, Sufrai.  Dialects: Sufrai, Tarpia (Tarfia). Closest to Bonggo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Tause

[tad] 300 (2000 Wurm). Around Deraposi, southwest of Danau Bira, northeast of Fayu language, northwest of Edopi language, western Lakes Plain (Paniai). Alternate names: Doa, Darha.  Dialects: Tause, Weirate, Deirate. Related to Fayu and Kirikiri.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, West 
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Taworta

[tbp] 140 (2000 Wurm). Lakes Plain area on the south side of the Idenburg River east of Taiyeve, Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Hulu Kecamatan. Alternate names: Taworta-Aero, Taria, Dabra, Bok.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, East Lakes Plain 
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Tefaro

[tfo] 100 (1987 SIL). East side of Cenderawasih Bay, in villages of Tefaro and Demba. Alternate names: Demba.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 61% with Barapasi, 63% with Sauri, 70% with Tunggare.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay 
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Tehit

[kps] 10,000 (2000 R. Hesse). 500 monolinguals. Southwest Bird's Head, Kabupaten Sorong, most of Kecamatan Teminabuan and half of Kecamatan Sawiat, about 31 villages. Alternate names: Tehid, Kaibus, Teminabuan, Tahit.  Dialects: Tehit Jit, Mbol Fle, Saifi, Imyan, Sfa Riere, Fkar, Sawiat Salmeit. Closest to Kalabra. Lexical similarity 60% with Kalabra.  Classification: West Papuan, Bird's Head, West Bird's Head 
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Tobati

[tti] 350 (1998 M. Donohue). Jayapura Bay, close to Jayapura, villages of Tobati, Enggros, Entrop, Kota Raja, Tanah Hitam. Alternate names: Jotafa, Yotafa, Yautefa, Humboldt Jotafa, Jayapura, Enggros, Tobwadic.  Dialects: Formerly classified as Papuan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay 
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Tofanma

[tlg] 90 (2000 Wurm). Tofanma village, south of Jayapura just east of Nawa River. Alternate names: Tofamna.  Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tofanma 
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Towei

[ttn] 115 (1975 SIL). Border area south of Jayapura, south of Dubu, west of Emumu languages, in and around Towe. Alternate names: Towe.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Pauwasi, Western 
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Trimuris

[tip] 300 (1999 SIL). East bank of the Mamberamo River between Kauwera and Bagusa languages, Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Tengah Kecamatan. Dialects: They do not understand Kwerba very well. Lexical similarity 70% with Kauwera and 60% with Kwerba.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Kwerba 
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Tsakwambo

[kvz] 500 (1991 SIL). South coast area on upper Digul River north of Mandobo language area. Alternate names: Kotogüt, Tsokwambo.  Dialects: Related to Ederah, Kia, Upper Digul, Upper Kaeme.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu, Aghu 
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Tunggare

[trt] 500 (1993 Doriot). North central, inland from Waropen group, west of Mamberamo River, east Geelvink Bay near Nabire. Alternate names: Tarunggare, Turunggare.  Dialects: Most closely related to Bauzi. Lexical similarity 70% with Bauzi, 75% with Burate, 65% with Demisa, 70% with Tefaro, 69% with Woria.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay 
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Una

[mtg] 4,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern highlands on south slopes of main ranges east of Sela Valley, west of Ngalum, Bidabuh, east Weip Valley, Yay Valley, around Langda, Bomela, Sumtamon. Alternate names: Goliath, Mt. Goliath, Oranje-Gebergte, Langda.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 75% with Eipomek, 69% with Ketengban.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern 
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Uruangnirin

[urn] 250 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Two small islands between Karas Island and mainland of southwest Bomberai Peninsula. Alternate names: Faur, Tubiruasa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai 
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Usku

[ulf] 20 (2000 Wurm). Usku village, south of Jayapura, just south of Pauwasi. Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Usku  Nearly extinct.
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Wabo

[wbb] 1,500 (1987 SIL). North and south coast of east end of Serui Island, near 136.45' to 136.55', 6 villages. Alternate names: Woriasi, Nusari.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 71% with Kurudu, 46% with Western Serui.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East 
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Waigeo

[wgo] 300 (1978 SIL). North central Waigeo Island off western Bird's Head, Sorong Kabupaten, Waigeo Selatan Kecamatan, Warsanbin, Selegop, Waifoi, Go, Kabilol, Kabare, and Nyandesawai villages. Alternate names: Ambel, Amber, Amberi, Waigiu.  Dialects: Metnyo, Metsam.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Wakde

[wkd] 400 (1980 SIL). Wakde Islands off the north coast just east of the Tor River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Walak

[wlw] 1,500 (1993 Doriot). Villages of Ilugwa, Wodo, Bugi, Mogonik, Wurigelebut. Alternate names: Lower Pyramid, Wodo.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani 
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Wambon

[wms] 3,000 (1987 SIL). South coast area northeast of Mandobo language area. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut 
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Wandamen

[wad] 5,000 (1993 Doriot). Wasior, Manokwari, west Cenderawasih Bay along Wandamen Bay extending west to east end of Bintuni Bay. Alternate names: Wandamen-Windesi, Windesi, Windessi, Bintuni, Bentuni, Bentoeni, Wamesa.  Dialects: Windesi, Bintuni, Wamesa, Wasior, Ambumi, Dasener, Aibondeni.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Wanggom

[wng] 875 (2002 SIL). Biwage II village. Alternate names: Wanggo, Wangom.  Dialects: Close to Wambon, Mandobo Atas, Mandobo Bawah, Kombai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut 
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Wano

[wno] 7,000 (2001 Burung). Central highlands area on upper Rouffaer River basin north of Damal, northwest of Dem, south of Kirikiri. Places are Kiagai, Lumo, Weiga, Puduk (Puluk), Yamo River, Wodegoduk, Kendo-Kendo River, Dukibeci (Lukibesi), Mui River, Fawi, Nggweri, Dagai, Acodi, Wuduma, Tigit, Dumo (Lumo), Kirudomo, Puduk, Mburumuome, Biricare, Mbomban, Yedome (Yei), Acodi, Wanggiva, Kawaimu, Damuk, Anevawi, Ambogobak, Tumbwi, Nggibaga, Nggubugani, Wandini. Partial villages are Iratoi, Turumo, Fawi. Alternate names: Waano.  Dialects: Close to Western Dani, Nggem, Walak. Lexical similarity 65% with Western Dani.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Wano 
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Warembori

[wsa] 600 (1998 SIL). North coast, mouth of Mamberamo River and west to Poiwai, villages of Warembori, Tamakuri, and Bonoi. Alternate names: Warenbori, Waremboivoro.  Dialects: Close to Yoke. Lexical similarity 33% with Yoke and 30% with Austronesian.  Classification: Lower Mamberamo 
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Wares

[wai] 200 (1993 Doriot). North coast area inland from Kwesten language on upper Biri River, south side, village of Mauswares. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor 
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Waris

[wrs] 1,500 in Indonesia. Northeast Papua south of Jayapura. Alternate names: Walsa.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris 
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Waritai

[wbe] 150 (2000 Wurm). Lakes Plain area around Taiyeve. Alternate names: Weretai, Wari.  Dialects: Related to Doutai.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Warkay-Bipim

[bgv] 300 (1993). South coast area bordering Asmat to east and Sawi to west, lower Eilanden River, 3 villages. Alternate names: Bipim As-So, Bipim.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Yaqay 
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Waropen

[wrp] 6,000 (1987 SIL). East Cenderawasih Bay, south coast of Serui Island. Alternate names: Wonti, Worpen, Aropen.  Dialects: Waropen Kai, Napan, Mo'or.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Waropen 
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Wauyai

[wuy] 300 (2001 B. Remijsen). Southwest Waigeo Island, Wauyai village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Woi

[wbw] 1,300 (1987 SIL). Miosnum and west Serui Islands, villages of Wooi and Wainap. Alternate names: Wo'oi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 77% with Pom, Marau, Ansus.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Wolani

[wod] 5,000 (1992 UBS). Western central highlands along Kemandoga and Mbiyandogo rivers, north of Ekari language 75 miles northeast of Lake Paniai, north of Wissel Lakes and northwest of the Moni. Alternate names: Wodani, Woda, Woda-Mo.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Ekari-Wolani-Moni 
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Woria

[wor] 5 to 6 (2000 Wurm). Interior Waropen Bawah, Botawa village. Dialects: Lexical similarity 64% with Barapasi, 64% with Demisa, 63% with Kofei, 69% with Tunggare.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay  Nearly extinct.
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Yafi

[wfg] 175 (1975 SIL). Northeast Papua, border area south of Jayapura near Ampas, villages of Yaffri, Sungguar, Tainda, Abiu, Tokondo. Alternate names: Jafi, Yaffi, Wagarindem, Wargarindem, Jafi Wagarindem.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Pauwasi, Eastern 
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Yahadian

[ner] 500 (1991 SIL). South Bird's Head, between lower Mintamani River and Sekak River along Maccluer Gulf. Alternate names: Nerigo, Jahadian, Yabin Yahadian.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Konda.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, Konda-Yahadian 
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Yale, Kosarek

[kkl] 2,300 (1993 Doriot). Nearly 100% are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,300. Eastern highlands, just east of Yali of Ninia, northwest of Nipsan, east of Dani, a little north of Yali of Angguruk. Alternate names: Kosarek, Yale-Kosarek, Wanam, In-lom.  Dialects: Kosarek, Gilika (Kilika), Tiple. Close to Nipsan, Nalca, and Gilika. Lexical similarity 78% with Nipsan, 59% with Nalca.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western 
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Yali, Angguruk

[yli] 15,000 (1991 UBS). Central highlands area northwest of Nalca, east of Grand Valley Dani. Alternate names: Northern Yali, Angguruk, Yalimo.  Dialects: Related to Yali of Ninia and Yali of Pass Valley.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Ngalik-Nduga 
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Yali, Ninia

[nlk] 10,500 (1999 Wilson). Central highlands area south of Angguruk, east of Soba, west of Korupun, including Ninia, Holuwon, and Lolat villages. Several hundred at Elelim, transmigrated by government in 1989 following earthquake. More than 50 villages. Alternate names: Ninia, Yali Selatan, Jaly, Jalè, North Ngalik, Southern Yali.  Dialects: Different from Yali of Pass Valley, Yali of Angguruk, and Hupla, but closely related.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Ngalik-Nduga 
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Yali, Pass Valley

[yac] 5,000 (1988 SIL). Central highlands, east of Angguruk and northwest of Naltya, Jayawijaya, Kurulu, and Kurima. Alternate names: Western Yali, Pass Valley, Abendago, Yaly, North Ngalik.  Dialects: Pass Valley, Landikma, Apahapsili. Related to Yali of Ninia and Yali of Angguruk.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Ngalik-Nduga 
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Yamna

[ymn] 250 (1980 SIL). Island off the north coast east of the Tor River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Yaqay

[jaq] 10,000 (1987 SIL). South coast area north of Odamun River and along Miwamon River southeast of Sawuy and Kaygir languages. Alternate names: Yaqai, Jakai, Sohur, Mapi, Jaqai.  Dialects: Oba-Miwamon, Nambiomon-Mabur, Bapai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Yaqay 
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Yarsun

[yrs] 200 (1991 SIL). Island off the north coast east of the Biri River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Bonggo Kecamatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Yaur

[jau] 350 (1978 SIL). Lower end of Cenderawasih Bay, west of Iresim. Alternate names: Jaur.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yaur 
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Yawa

[yva] 6,000 (1987 SIL). Central Serui Island, Serui Waropen, Serui Selatan, Timur Barat, 8 north coast villages, 2 interior villages, 18 south coast villages. Alternate names: Yapanani, Mora, Turu, Mantembu, Yava, Iau.  Dialects: Central Yawa (Mora), West Yawa, South Yawa, North Yawa, East Yawa.  Classification: Geelvink Bay, Yawa 
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Yei

[jei] 900 (1996 M. Donohue). Ethnic population: 1,100 (1996 M. Donohue). Border area of south coast, east of Marind along Maro River, 6 villages. Alternate names: Yey, Jei, Je, Yei-Nan.  Dialects: Upper Yei, Lower Yei. The dialects are inherently intelligible with each other only with difficulty.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Yey 
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Yelmek

[jel] 400 (1978 SIL). South coast area on east side of Marianne Strait between Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) Island and mainland. Alternate names: Jelmek, Jab, Jabsch, Jelmik.  Dialects: Closest to Maklew.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Bulaka River 
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Yeretuar

[gop] 350 (2000). Lower Cenderawasih Bay, south of Wandamen language. Alternate names: Goni, Umar, Umari.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yeretuar 
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Yetfa

[yet] 1,000 in Indonesia (1996). Population total all countries: 1,200. Jayawijaya Kabupaten, Okbibab Kecamatan, border area east and north of the Sogber River, many villages south of Gunung. Also spoken in Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Biksi, Biaksi, Inisine.  Dialects: Yetfa and Biksi are 2 ethnic groups, speaking the same language.  Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Biksi 
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Yoke

[yki] 200 (1998 Donohue). East of Warembori east of the Mamberamo River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Mantarbori village. Recently moved to coastal location from the interior. Alternate names: Yoki, Yauke, Jauke, Pauwi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 33% with Warembori.  Classification: Lower Mamberamo 
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