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Languages of India

Republic of India, Bharat. 1,065,070,607. Indo-Aryan 777,361,000, 76%; Dravidian 216,635,000, 21.6%; Austro-Asiatic 12,250,000, 1.2%; Tibeto-Burman 10,350,000, 1%; Other 2,468,600, 0.2%. National or official languages: Hindi and English. There are 22 official 'scheduled' languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Marathi, Meitei, Nepali, Oriya, Eastern Panjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu. Literacy rate: 36% to 52%. Also includes Armenian (560), Burushaski, Chitwania Tharu, Geman Deng, Judeo-Iraqi Arabic, Kathoriya Tharu, Northern Pashto (15,000), Portuguese (250,000), Russian (1,036), Uyghur, Walungge, Western Farsi (18,000), Arabic, Chinese. Information mainly from G. Marrison 1967; R. Hugoniot 1970; C. Masica 1991; K. S. Singh 1994, 1995; J. Matisoff, S. Baron, and J. Lowe 1996; R. Breton 1997; R. Burling ms 1998. Blind population: 9,000,000. Deaf population: 9,400,000 to 14,000,000 (2001). Deaf institutions: 850. The number of languages listed for India is 428. Of those, 415 are living languages and 13 are extinct.

Living languages

Aariya

[aay]  Madhya Pradesh, Chhatarpur, Datia, Panna, Rewa, Satna, Shahdol, Sidhi, Tikamgarh districts. Classification: Unclassified 
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Adi

[adi] 110,000 in India (1997 BSI). Population includes 1,200 Palibo. Population total all countries: 111,088. Arunachal Pradesh, East, West, and Upper Siang districts, Upper Subansiri and Dibang Valley districts; Assam, north hills of Assam Valley, between Bhutan and the Buruli River. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Abhor, Abor, Boga'er Luoba, Lhoba, Luoba.  Dialects: Ashing, Bokar (Boga'er Luoba), Bori, Karko, Komkar, Milang, Minyong, Padam (Standard Adi), Pailibo, Pangi, Pasi, Ramo, Shimong, Tangam. Sun (1993) lists Tani languages and dialects as Apatani, Milang, Bokar, Damu, Mising, Padam, Bangni, Tagin, Sagli, south Aya, Leli, and perhaps Pailibo, Ramo, Asing, Bori, Pasi, Panggi, Simong, Minyong, Karok, Hill Miri, and some northern and western dialects of Nisi. Intelligible with Adi Galo but they are sociolinguistically distinct. A different language from Yidu Lhoba.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Adi, Galo

[adl] 150,000 (2004). A few older adult monolinguals. Arunachal Pradesh, West Siang, East Siang, Dibang Valley (south), Lohit (east), Changlang (northeast), and some in Upper Subansiri (west) districts. Alternate names: Adi, Adi-Gallong, Adi-Galo, Gallong, Galong.  Dialects: Reportedly intelligible with other Adi dialects but they are sociolinguistically distinct.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Agariya

[agi] 55,757 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Mandla, Bilaspur, Rewa districts, Maikal hills; Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur District Uttar Pradesh, Agra, Mathura, Mirzapur districts. Alternate names: Agaria, Agharia, Agoria.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari 
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Ahirani

[ahr] 779,000 (1997). Maharashtra, Dhule, Jalgaon districts; Gujarat. Alternate names: Ahiri.  Dialects: Preliminary findings are that it is distinct from Khandesi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi 
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Aimol

[aim] 2,643 in Manipur (2001 census). Assam; Manipur; Chandel District, Unapal, Satu, Kumirei, Chingunghut, Aimol Tampak, Khodamphai, Ngairong Aimol, Chandonpokpi, Soibong (Khudengthabi); Senapati District, Tuikhong; Churachandpur District, Kha-Aimol, Luichungbum. Dialects: Langrong. Langrong may be a separate language. Related to Chiru, Purum. Reportedly intelligible to Koireng.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Aiton

[aio] 5,000 (1990 Diller). Assam, Jorhat, Karbi Anglong districts, Doboroni, Banlung, Ahomoni, Balipathar, Kaliyani, Chakihula, Tengani, Barhula villages. Alternate names: Aitonia.  Dialects: Close to Phake. Related to Shan of Myanmar.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Allar

[all] 350. Kerala, Palakkad, Malappuram districts. Alternate names: Alan, Alanmar, Alar, Allan, Chatans.  Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Amri

[ajz] 125,000 (2003). Assam, Kamrup District, south of the Brahmaputra River including Chandubi, Loharghat, Rani block, Jalukbari, Pandu, Basbistha, Panikhaith, Jorabat, Sonapur, Khetri, Kahi Kusi; Meghalaya; East Khasi Hills District, Nongpoh area, including Barni Hat and Umling. Alternate names: Amri Karbi.  Dialects: Reported to be unintelligible with Karbi. Lexical similarity 75% with Rengkhang and Chingthang, 90% with the Karbi spoken in West Bengal.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Mikir 
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Anal

[anm] 13,853 in India (2001 census). Southeast Manipur, Chandel District, Chandel, Chakpikarong, Tengnoupal subdivisions, on banks of Chakpi River. Possibly in Bangladesh. Also spoken in Myanmar. Alternate names: Namfau.  Dialects: Laizo, Mulsom. Closest to Lamgang (Kuki Naga).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Andaman Creole Hindi

[hca] 10,000 to 31,000 (2002). Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair and 40 villages south of Port Blair. Alternate names: Andaman Hindi.  Dialects: A creolization of Hindustani, Bengali, Malayalam.  Classification: Creole, Hindi based 
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Andh

[anr] 80,000 (1991). Maharashtra, Akola, Aurangabad, Buldana, Nanded, Parbhani, Yeotmal districts; Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad, Hyderabad; Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: Andha, Andhi.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Angika

[anp] 725,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 740,892. Northern Bihar. Also spoken in Nepal. Alternate names: Anga, Angikar, Chhika-Chhiki.  Dialects: 79% inherent intelligibility of Brahmin Maithili. Lexical similarity 81% (Brahmin) to 87% (non-Brahmin) with Darbhanga Maithili.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Apatani

[apt] 23,000 (1997). Assam; Arunachal Pradesh, Subansiri District, 7 villages in and around Hapoli and Zirol; Nagaland. Alternate names: Apa.  Dialects: It may be intelligible with Nisi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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A-Pucikwar

[apq] 24 (2000 Verma). Andaman Islands, Boratang Island, south coast of Middle Andaman Island, northeast coast of South Andaman Island. Alternate names: Pucikwar, Puchikwar.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central  Nearly extinct.
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Arakanese

[mhv] 24,000 in India (1997). Assam; Tripura; Mizoram, Mombusu, Dungjangtalang, Mowthimambrow villages; West Bengal. Alternate names: Mogh, Mog, "Magh", "Maghi", Morma, Yakan, Yakhaing, Rakhain, Marma.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern 
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Aranadan

[aaf] 236 (1981 census). Kerala, Kozhihkode District, Ernad taluk; Palghat District; Tamil Nadu, Karnataka. Alternate names: Aranatan, Eranadans.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Assamese

[asm] 15,334,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 15,374,000. Assam; West Bengal; Meghalaya; Arunachal Pradesh. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Bhutan. Alternate names: Asambe, Asami, Asamiya.  Dialects: Jharwa (Pidgin), Mayang, Standard Assamese, Western Assamese.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Asuri

[asr] 16,596 (2001). Jharkhand, Gumla and Lohardaga districts of Chotanagpur Plateau; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh District, Jashpur area; Maharashtra; Orissa, Sambalpur District; West Bengal. Alternate names: Ashree, Asura, Assur, Maleta.  Dialects: Brijia (Birjia, Koranti), Manjhi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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A'tong

[aot]  Assam. Dialects: Most closely related to Koch and Rabha.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch 
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Awadhi

[awa] 20,000,000 in India (1999). Population total all countries: 20,560,744. Bihar; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh, Kheri, Sitapur, Lucknow, Unnao, Rae-Bareli, Bahraich, Bara-Banki, Pratapgarh, Sultanpur, Gonda, Faizabad, Allahabad districts; Delhi. Also spoken in Nepal. Alternate names: Abadi, Abohi, Ambodhi, Avadhi, Baiswari, Kojali, Kosali.  Dialects: Gangapari, Mirzapuri, Pardesi, Uttari. Awadhi in Banke, Bardiya districts in Nepal may not be intelligible with Awadhi in India.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone 
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Badaga

[bfq] 245,374 (2000 WCD). Tamil Nadu, Madras-Nilgiri, Kunda hills. 200 villages. Alternate names: Badag, Badagu, Badugu, Baduga, Vadagu.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada 
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Bagheli

[bfy] 396,000 in India (1997). Northeast Madhya Pradesh, Satna, Rewa, Shahdol, Sidhi, Jabalpur, Mandla, Chhindwara districts; Maharashtra; Uttar Pradesh, Banda District. Also spoken in Nepal. Alternate names: Bagelkhandi, Bhugelkhud, Mannadi, Riwai, Gangai, Mandal, Kewot, Kewat, Kawathi, Kenat, Kevat Boli, Kevati, Kewani, Kewati.  Dialects: Ojhi (Ojaboli, Ojha, Ojhe, Oza, Ozha), Powari, Banapari, Gahore, Tirhari, Godwani (Mandlaha), Sonpari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone 
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Bagri

[bgq] 1,899,100 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 2,099,100. Punjab, Firozepur, Muktsar districts; Rajasthan, Hanumangarh, Sriganganagar districts; Haryana, Sirsa, Hissar districts; Madhya Pradesh. Also spoken in Pakistan. Alternate names: Bagari, Bagria, Bagris, Baorias, Bahgri.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 62% with Hindi, 65% with Haryanvi, 51% to 66% with Marwari, 58% to 69% with Merwari, 69% to 76% with Shekhawati, 47% to 63% with Godwari, 63% to 65% with Dhundari, 60% to 66% with Mewati, 74% with Jandavra.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Balochi, Eastern

[bgp] 5,000 in India (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Uttar Pradesh; Gujarat. Alternate names: Balochi, Baluci, Baloci.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi 
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Balti

[bft] 67,000 in India (1997). Jammu and Kashmir. Alternate names: Sbalt, Baltistani, Bhoti of Baltistan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western 
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Bareli, Palya

[bpx] 10,000 to 25,000 (2000 Varkey). Madhya Pradesh, Barwani District: Rajpur, Barwani tahsils; Khargone District: Jhirniya tahsil; Maharashtra, Jalgaon District: Yawal, Raver tahsils; Dhule District: Shirpur tahsil. Alternate names: Pali, Palodi, Palya Bareli.  Dialects: Dialect center is MP, Barwani District, Choutharya village of Rajpur tahsil. Lexical similarity is 62 to 66% with Pauri Bareli; 67 to 73% with Rathwi Bareli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bareli, Pauri

[bfb] 150,000 to 200,000 (2000). Maharashtra; Nandurbar District, Dhadgaon, Shahada, Taloda tahsils; Dhule District; Shirpur tahsil; Madhya Pradesh; Barwani District; Pansemal tahsil; Nivali and Pati blocks. Alternate names: Barewali, Barli, Bareli.  Dialects: Pauri Bareli not intelligible with Rathwi Bareli or Palya Bareli. Dialect center in Maharashtra, Nandurbar District, Dhadgaon tahsil. Lexical similarity 81 to 88% among varieties of Pauri Bareli; 68 to 79% with Rathwi Bareli; 62 to 66% with Palya Bareli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bareli, Rathwi

[bgd] 63,700 (2000). Madhya Pradesh; Barwani District; Barwani, Sendhwa, Rajpur tahsils; Khargone District; Bhagawanpura, Jhirniya, Bhikangaon tahsils; Dewas District; Bagli tahsil; Khandwa District; Burhanpur tahsil; Dhar District; Dahi block; Rathia Bhilala in South Jhabua District; Maharashtra northern Dhule District; Shirpur tahsil; Jalgaon District; Chopda, Raver, Yawal tahsils. Alternate names: Barel, Pauri, Pawri, Pawari, Rathwi Pauri, Rathi, Rathia.  Dialects: Pauri Bareli and Rathwi Pauri not intelligible with Vasavi or Bhilori. Dialect center is Madhya Pradesh, Barwani District, Chiklia. Not intelligible with Palya Bareli or Pauri Bareli. Understood by Rathia Bhilala of Nimad, Bhilala of Sondhwa block of Jhabua District and Bhils of south Dhar District. Lexical similarity 81% to 93% among Rathwi Bareli dialects; 67 to 73% with Palya Bareli; 68 to 79% with Pauri Bareli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bateri

[btv] 800 in India. 200 families. Jammu and Kashmir, near Srinagar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani 
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Bauria

[bge] 247,872 (1999). Punjab; Himachal Pradesh; Delhi; Haryana; Chandigarh; Rajasthan; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: Badak, Babri, Basria, Bawari, Bawaria, Bhoria, Vaghri, Baori.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bazigar

[bfr] 58,236 (1981 census). Haryana; Chandigarh; Delhi; Gujarat; Himachal Pradesh; Punjab; Jammu and Kashmir; Madhya Pradesh; Karnataka. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Bellari

[brw] 1,352 (1981 census). Karnataka; Kerala; Tamil Nadu. Dialects: Related to Tulu, Koraga.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu 
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Bengali

[ben] 70,561,000 in India (1997). West Bengal; Jharkhand, Dhanbad, Manbhum, Singhbhum, Santal Parganas; Bihar; Assam, Goalpara District; Meghalaya, Garo Hills; Mizoram; Nagaland. Alternate names: Bangala, Bangla, Bangla-Bhasa.  Dialects: Barik, Bhatiari, Chirmar, Kachari-Bengali, Lohari-Malpaharia, Musselmani, Rajshahi, Samaria, Saraki, Siripuria (Kishanganjia).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Bhadrawahi

[bhd] 69,000 (1997). Jammu and Kashmir. Alternate names: Baderwali, Badrohi, Bhaderbhai Jamu, Bhaderwali Pahari, Bhadrava, Bhadri, Bahi.  Dialects: Bhalesi, Padar, Padari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Bhalay

[bhx] 8,672 (1981 census). Maharashtra, Amravati District. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified 
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Bharia

[bha] 196,512 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Datia, Jabalpur, Mandla, Panna, Rewa, Sidhi, Tikamgarh districts; Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur, Durg, Surguja districts; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal. Alternate names: Bhar, Bharat, Bhumia, Bhumiya, Paliha.  Dialects: Singh 1993 reports they speak a variety of Hindi.  Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Bhatola

[btl] 5,045 (2000 WCD). Madhya Pradesh. Classification: Unclassified 
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Bhatri

[bgw] 600,000 (2000). Andhra Pradesh; Chhattisgarh, Bastar District, Jagdalpur tahsil; Maharashtra; Orissa, Koraput District, Kotpad tahsil. Alternate names: Bhattri, Bhattra, Bhatra, Basturia, Bhottada, Bhottara.  Dialects: All dialects understand each other at 88%. Close to Halbi. Lexical similarity 70% to 90% between dialects, 58% with Adivasi Oriya.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Bhattiyali

[bht] 102,252 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Bhattiyat tahsil, Sihunta Sub-tahsil. Alternate names: Bhateali, Bhatiali Pahari, Bhatiyali.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 86% with Chambeali, 83% with Palampuri Kangri, 76% with Bilaspuri.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Bhilali

[bhi] 1,000,000 to 1,300,000 (2000). Population includes 25,000 to 50,000 Parya Bhilali. Madhya Pradesh, Khargone (Segaon), Barwani (Rajpur), southern Jhabua and southern Dhar districts; Maharashtra, Dhule District; some in Gujarat; Karnataka; Rajasthan. Alternate names: Bhilala.  Dialects: Parya Bhilali. Lexical similarity 61 to 79% between Parya Bhilali and other Bhilali varieties.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bhili

[bhb] 1,300,000 (1994). Population includes 1,000,000 Bhil plus 300,000 Patelia in Madhya Pradesh. 12,688 Kotvali (1994), 5,624,000 in languages in the Bhil family. Madhya Pradesh, Jhabua, Char, Ratlam districts; Gujarat, Panchmahals, and Dahod districts; Rajasthan; Maharashtra; some in Jammu and Kashmir; Andhra Pradesh; Karnataka; Punjab; Bihar; Tripura; mountainous areas. Alternate names: Bhilbari, Bhilboli, Bhilla, Bhil, Bhilodi, Vil, Bhagoria, Lengotia.  Dialects: Ahiri, Anarya (Pahadi), Bhilodi, Bhim, Charani, Habura, Konkani, Kotali (Kotvali, Kotwalia), Magra Ki Boli, Nahari (Baglani), Naikdi, Panchali, Patelia, Ranawat, Rani Bhil, Siyalgir. Bhili of Ratlam District in Madhya Pradesh is inherently intelligible with Wagdi and a connecting link between Gujarati and Rajasthani (Marwari). Bhili highly intelligible to Bhilodi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bhojpuri

[bho] 24,544,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 26,592,536. Bihar, Champaran, Saran, Shahabad districts; Jharkhand, Palamu, Ranchi districts; Uttar Pradesh, Gorakhpur, Basti, Deoria, Azamgarh, Ghazipur, Varanasi, Mirzapur, Ballia districts; Assam; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; West Bengal. Also spoken in Mauritius, Nepal. Alternate names: Bhojapuri, Bhozpuri, Bajpuri, Bihari, Deswali, Khotla, Piscimas.  Dialects: Northern Standard Bhojpuri (Gorakhpuri, Sarawaria, Basti), Western Standard Bhojpuri (Purbi, Benarsi), Southern Standard Bhojpuri (Kharwari), Tharu, Madhesi, Domra, Musahari. May be more than one language. Extent of dialect variation in India and Nepal not yet determined. The cover term 'Bihari' (Behari) is used for Bhojpuri, Maithili, and Magahi. Tharu is a dialect of Bhojpuri spoken by the Tharu caste in Nepal. It is distinct from Chitwan and other Tharu.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Bhunjia

[bhu] 18,601 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Hoshangabad District; Chhattisgarh, Raipur District; Orissa, Nuapada, Koraput, Dhenkanal, Balasore (Baleshwar), Keonjhar Sambalpur districts, Sunabera Plateau area; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Bunjia, Bhumjiya, Bhunjiya.  Dialects: Called a more divergent dialect of Halbi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Biete

[biu] 19,000 (1997). Meghalaya, Jaintia Hills District; Mizoram northeast, Aizawl District, Darlawn, Ratu, New Vervek villages; Assam; Cachar Hills; Manipur. Alternate names: Baite, Bete, Biate.  Dialects: Closest to Hrangkhol.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Bijori

[bix] 2,391 (1961 census). Jharkhand, Cowerdaga, and Ranchi districts; West Bengal, Darjeeling, and Jalpaiguri districts; Madhya Pradesh; Orissa. Alternate names: Binjhia, Birijia, Brijia, Burja, Birjia.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari 
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Bilaspuri

[kfs] 295,387 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Bilaspur District. Alternate names: Bilaspuri Pahari, Pacchmi, Kahluri, Kehluri, Kehloori Pahari.  Dialects: 95% intelligibility of Mandeali, 94% of Kangri. Lexical similarity 90% with Kangri of Palampur, 86% with Mandeali, 84% with Chambeali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Birhor

[biy] 10,000 (1998 GR). Jharkhand, Hazaribagh, Singbhum, and Ranchi districts; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh District; Orissa, Sundargarh, Kalahandi, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Sambalpur districts; West Bengal; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Bihor, Birhar, Birhore, Mankidi, Mankidia.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 55% to 72% with Santhali, Ho, Mundari.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Bishnupriya

[bpy] 75,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 115,000. Assam, Cachar, Hailakandi, Karimganj districts; Tripura, North. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Bishnupuriya, Bisna Puriya, Bishnupria Manipuri.  Dialects: Madai Gang (Leimanai), Rajar Gang (Ningthaunai). Related to Bengali and Assamese. Though once regarded as a Bengali-Meitei creole, it retains pre-Bengali features (Masica 1991).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Bodo

[brx] 600,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 603,301. Assam, South Bank; West Bengal, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Coch-Behar districts; Manipur, Chandel (Tengnoupal) District; Meghalaya, West Garo Hills District, 7 villages in the Tikrikilla block. Also spoken in Nepal. Alternate names: Boro, Bodi, Bara, Boroni, Mechi, Meche, Mech, Meci, Kachari.  Dialects: Chote, Mech. Related to Dimasa, Tripuri, Lalunga. The dialect of West Bengal is reportedly different from Assam.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Bodo Parja

[bdv] 50,000 (2001). Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: Bodo Paraja, Parji, Parja, Paroja, Poroja, Jhodia Parja, Sodia Parja, Parjhi, Parajhi, Harja, Jharia, Jhaliya.  Dialects: Phonology and grammar show Indo-European relationship, not related to Dravidian Duruwa Parji. 86% to 96% intelligibility between Bodo and Jhodia caste varieties. Lexical similarity 76% to 86% between Bodo and Jhodia caste varieties, 70% to 89% with Desia.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Bondo

[bfw] 9,000 (2002 SIL). Few Lower Bondo are monolingual. Population includes 5,565 Upper Bondo and 3,500 Lower Bondo. Orissa, Malkangiri District, Khoirput Block, Bondo Hills. Alternate names: Poraja Katha, Bhonda Bhasha, Bondo-Poraja, Remo, Remosum, Bonda, Nanqa Poroja.  Dialects: Upper Bondo, Lower Bondo. Closest to Didayi, Gutob Gadaba, Parenga. 88% comprehension of Upper Bondo by Lower Bondo. Lexical similarity 70% to 94% with other Bondo varieties, 45% to 51% with Gadaba Gutob, 22% to 32% with Upper Gata' (Didayi).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta', Gutob-Remo 
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Braj Bhasha

[bra] 44,000 (1997). Uttar Pradesh, Agra Region; Rajasthan, Bharatpur, Sawai Madhopur districts; Haryana, Gurgaon District; Bihar; Madhya Pradesh; Delhi. Alternate names: Braj, Braj Bhakha, Brij Bhasha, Antarbedi, Antarvedi, Bijbhasha, Bri, Briju, Bruj.  Dialects: Braj Bhasha, Antarbedi, Bhuksa, Sikarwari, Jadobafi, Dangi. Bhuksa is sometimes mentioned as a dialect of Kanauji.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified 
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Brokskat

[bkk] 3,000 (1981 census). Jammu and Kashmir, along the Indus River in Ladakh and Kargil districts, northern Kashmir, villages around Garkhon, including Darchiks, Chulichan, Gurgurdo, Batalik, Dah, and formerly in Hanu. Alternate names: Brokpa, Brokpa of Dah-Hanu, Dokskat, Kyango.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina 
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Bugun

[bgg] 1,046 (1991 census). Arunachal Pradesh; West Kameng District, in 7 or 8 villages on the mountains on both sides of the Rupa River, interspersed among the Hruso. Alternate names: Khowa, Kho, Khoa.  Dialects: Mutually intelligible with Sulung (Chowdhury).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Buksa

[tkb] 43,000 (1999). Uttaranchal, southwestern Nainital District, along a diagonal from Ramnagar to Keneshpur. 130 villages in Kichha and Kashipur tahsils, and small numbers in Bijnor and Garhwal districts. Dialects: 95% intelligibility of Rana Tharu. Lexical similarity 58% to 79% with western Tharu varieties, 58% with Chitwania Tharu, 83% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Bundeli

[bns] 644,000 (1997). Uttar Pradesh, Jalaun, Jhansi, Hamirpur, Banda districts; Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Hoshangabad, Sagar, Sehore, Panna, Satna, Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh, Shivpuri, Guna, Bhind, Morena, Gwalior, Lalitpur, Narsinghpur, Seoni, Datia districts; Maharashtra, Bhandara, Nagpur districts; Rajasthan; Gujarat; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Bondili, Bundelkhandi.  Dialects: Standard Bundeli, Pawari (Powari), Lodhanti (Rathora), Khatola, Banaphari, Kundri, Nibhatta, Tirhari, Bhadauri (Towargarhi), Gaoli, Kirari, Raghobansi, Nagpuri Hindi, Chhindwara Bundeli. Intelligibility testing of Standard varieties gave 83%, 92%, and 98%. Chhatapur dialect is widely understood. Other dialects listed by Grierson are Standard Braj of Mathura, Aligarh, western Agra; Standard Braj of Bulandshahr; Standard Braj of eastern Agra, southern Morena, southern Bharatpur; Braj merging into Kanauji in Etah, Mainpuri, Budaun, and Bareilly; Braj merging into the Bhadauri subdialect in northern Morena; Braj merging into Jaipuri (Rajasthani) in northern Bharatpur and Sawai Uradhopur; Bhuksa in southern Nainital. Lexical similarity 65% to 85% between Chhindwara and Standard Bundeli, 41% with Nagpuri Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Bundeli 
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Byangsi

[bee] 2,829 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 4,563. Uttaranchal, Pithoragarh District, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, in the Kuthi Yangti River valley high in the Himalayas on the border with Tibet and Nepal. In Byangs Patti from Budi in the south to Kuti village in the north including Nabi, Gunji, Napalchyu, Rongkang, and Garbyang villages. Also spoken in Nepal. Alternate names: Byangkho Lwo, Byanshi, Byansi, Bhotia, Byangkhopa, Jaba, Saukas, Shaukas, Rang.  Dialects: Pangjungkho Boli, Yerjungkhu Boli, Kuti. Related to Rangkas, Darmiya, Chaudangsi. Devidatta Sharma 1989 suggests that Chaudangsi and Byangsi are varieties of one language. Considered to be dialects of one language with Chaudangsi and dialects in Chhanguru and Tinker districts of Nepal.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora 
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Chakma

[ccp] 300,000 in India (1987). Mizoram, southwestern part along Karnafuli River; Tripura, North Tripura District, Kailashahar Subdivision, South Tripura District; Assam, Karbi, Anglong, North Cachar, Cachar districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Tirap District, Changlang District, Miao Subdivision; Lohit District, Chowkham Circle; West Bengal; Manipur. Alternate names: Takam, Chakama, Tsakma.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Chamari

[cdg] 5,324 (1971 census). Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Chamar, Chambhar Boli, Chambhari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified 
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Chambeali

[cdh] 129,654 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Chamba Tahsil; Jammu and Kashmir. Alternate names: Chamaya, Chambiali, Chambiyali, Chamiyali Pahari, Chamya, Cameali.  Dialects: Bansbali, Bansyari, Gadi Chameali. 91% intelligibility of Mandeali, 87% of Kangri. Lexical similarity 90% with Palampuri Kangri, 86% with Bhattiyali, 84% with Bilaspuri, 83% with Mandeali, 79% with Gaddi, 78% with Churahi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Changthang

[cna] 10,089 (2000 WCD). Jammu and Kashmir, Tibetan border area, Changthang Region east and southeast of Leh. Alternate names: Changtang, Changtang Ladakhi, Changs-Skat, Byangskat, Byanskat, Rong, Rupshu, Stotpa, Upper Ladakhi.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Ladakhi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western, Ladakhi 
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Chaudangsi

[cdn] 1,825 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 3,022. Uttaranchal, Pithoragarh District, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, Chaudangs Patti, in 14 villages along the west bank of the Kali River facing the Nepal border along the Mahakali Valley. Villages include Panggu, Rongto, Rimzhim, Waiku, Monggong, Chilla, Song, Sosa, Sirdang, Sirkha, Rung, Zipti, Gala, Tangkul, SyangKhola. Also spoken in Nepal. Alternate names: Chaudans Lo, Chanpa Lo, Bangba Lo, Tsaudangsi, Bangbani, Saukas, Shaukas.  Dialects: Related to Rangkas, Darmiya, Byangsi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora 
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Chaura

[crv] 2,018 (2000 WCD). Nicobar Islands, Chaura Island. Alternate names: Chowra, Tutet.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa 
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Chenchu

[cde] 28,754 (1981 census). Andhra Pradesh, highest concentration in Kurnool District, Nallamalla Hills; Karnataka; Orissa. Alternate names: Chenchucoolam, Chenchwar, Chenswar, Choncharu.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu 
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Chhattisgarhi

[hne] 11,535,000. Population includes 11,456,000 Chhattisgarhi (1997), 79,000 Laria (1997). Chhattisgarh; Bihar; Orissa; and possibly in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Tripura. Alternate names: Laria, Khaltahi.  Dialects: Surgujia, Sadri Korwa, Baigani (Baiga, Bega, Bhumia, Gowro), Binjhwari, Kalanga, Bhulia, Chhattisgarhi Proper, Kavardi, Khairagarhi. Most closely related to Awadhi and Bagheli. Surgujia in the Surguja and Raigarh districts of Chhattisgarh; Sadri Korwa spoken by Korwa people of Jashpur tahsil of Raigarh District; Baigani in Balaghat, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh, and Sambalpur District of Orissa; Binjhwari is spoken in Raipur and Raigarh districts of Chhattisgarh; Kalanga and Bhulia are spoken in Patna District of Bihar; Chhattisgarhi Proper is spoken in Raipur, Durg, Bilaspur, and other districts of Chhattisgarh.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone 
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Chin, Bawm

[bgr] 4,439 in India (2004). Population total all countries: 13,793. Mizoram, Chhimtuipui, Lunglei, and Aizawl districts; Tripura; Assam. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Myanmar. Alternate names: Bawm, Bawng, Bawn, Bom.  Dialects: Regard themselves correctly as a subgroup of the Laizou (Anal) (Matisoff et al. 1996:8).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Chin, Falam

[flm] 25,367 in India (1994). Population includes 7,000 Ranglong. Assam, Karimganj District, south, a few villages in Cachar and North Hills districts; Tripura; Mizoram; West Bengal. Alternate names: Halam Chin, Hallam, Fallam, Tipura.  Dialects: Chorei, Chari Chong, Halam, Kaipang, Kalai (Koloi), Mursum (Molsom), Rupini, Ranglong, Tapong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chin, Haka

[cnh] 345,000 Lai in India (1996 UBS). Mizoram, Chhimtuipui and Aizawi District, southernmost tip; Assam; Meghalaya. Alternate names: Haka, Baungshe, Lai, Lai Pawi, Lai Hawlh.  Dialects: Klangklang (Thlantlang), Zokhua, Shonshe.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Chin, Khumi

[cnk]  Assam. Alternate names: Kami, Khami, Khumi, Khuni, Khweymi, Kumi.  Dialects: Khami, Khimi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Khumi 
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Chin, Mara

[mrh] 22,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 42,000. Mizoram, Chhimtuipui District, 60 villages. Also spoken in Myanmar. Alternate names: Lakher, Zao, Maram, Mira, Mara.  Dialects: Tlongsai (Tlosai-Siaha), Hlawthai. Close to Shendu. Reported to be affiliated with Lai (Haka Chin). Tlosai-Siaha dialect is the lingua franca of all Mara (Singh).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Chin, Matu

[hlt] 20,000 in India (2000). Mizoram. Alternate names: Matupi, Ngala.  Dialects: Haltu, Thui Phum.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Chin, Paite

[pck] 45,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 53,900. Assam; Manipur, Churachandpur District, Khuga Valley, Copur Bazar; Mizoram, Aizawl District, Champhai Subdivision, 20 villages; Tripura. Also spoken in Myanmar. Alternate names: Paite, Paithe, Parte, Haithe, Zoukam.  Dialects: Bukpi (Bukpui), Dapzal (Dapzar), Dim, Dimpi, Lamzang, Lousau, Saizang, Sihzang, Telzang (Teizang), Tuichiap. Related to Thado Chin, Tedim Chin, Ralte, Zomi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chin, Tedim

[ctd] 155,000 in India (1990 BAP). Mizoram (north), Manipur (south). Alternate names: Tedim, Tiddim.  Dialects: Sokte, Kamhau (Kamhow, Kamhao).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chin, Thado

[tcz] 125,100 in India. Population total all countries: 151,300. Assam; Manipur, Chandel District; Nagaland, Kohima District; Mizoram, northeast; Tripura. Also spoken in Myanmar. Alternate names: Thadou, Thado-Ubiphei, Thado-Pao, Kuki, Kuki-Thado, Thaadou Kuki.  Dialects: Baite, Changsen, Jangshen, Kaokeep, Khongzai, Kipgen, Langiung, Sairang, Thangngen, Hawkip, Shithlou, Singson (Shingsol). Related to Kamhau, Ralte, Paite, Zo.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chinali

[cih] 500 to 1,000 (1996). Himachal Pradesh, throughout Lahul Valley, especially in Pattan Valley, Gushal village. Alternate names: Chinal, Chana, Dagi, Shipi, Harijan, Channali.  Dialects: Speakers say Chinali is closely related to Sanskrit.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Chiru

[cdf] 7,000 (2000 Khorong). Manipur, Tamenglong District, Lamdangmei, Dolang villages; Senapati, Kangchup, Thangzing, Sadu, Bungte, Nungshai, Dolang Khunou, Uram villages; Churachandpur District, Charoi Khullen village; Thoubal District, Vaithou; Bishnupur District; Assam, Cachar District, one village near Jirbom; Nagaland. Scattered. Alternate names: Chhori.  Dialects: Closest language linguistically is Chin Mizo.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chodri

[cdi] 226,534 (1994). Mainly in Gujarat, Surat, Broach and Dangs districts. Some in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan. Alternate names: Chaudri, Chodhari, Chaudhari, Choudhary, Choudhara, Chowdhary.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Churahi

[cdj] 110,552 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Chaurah and Saluni tahsils, Bhalai Sub-tahsil. Alternate names: Churahi Pahari, Chaurahi, Churai Pahari.  Dialects: 90% intelligibility of Mandeali, 83% of Kangri, 85% of Chambeali. Lexical similarity 78% with Chambeali (closest), 70% with Palampuri Kangri and Bhattiyali, 67% to 69% with Gaddi, 65% with Mandeali and Bilaspuri, 64% with Pangi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Darlong

[dln] 6,000 in India (1998 Thanglura Darlong). Tripura, North Tripura District, Kailashahar and Kamalpur subdivisions. Alternate names: Dalong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Darmiya

[drd] 2,027 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 3,224. Uttaranchal, Pithoragarh District, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, Dhauli Valley, from Tawaghat near Dharchula in the south to Sipoo in the north along the river Dhauli. Dar, Bongling, Selachal, Nanglin, Baling, Dugtu, Saung, Baun, Philam, Datu, Gwo, Marchha, Dhakar, Sobla, Sipoo villages. Also spoken in Nepal. Alternate names: Darimiya, Darmani, Saukas, Shaukas.  Dialects: Related to Rangkas, Chaudangsi, Byangsi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora 
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Deccan

[dcc] 10,709,800 (1990). Central Maharashtra, Deccan Plateau; Karnataka, Belgaum, Bijapur districts; Madhya Pradesh, Raisen, Sehore districts; Gujarat. Alternate names: Desi, Dekini, Deccani.  Dialects: Kalvadi (Dharwar), Bijapuri.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified 
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Degaru

[dgu] 10,089 (2000 WCD). Bihar; West Bengal. Alternate names: Dhekaru.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Deori

[der] 26,900 (2000). Ethnic population: 50,000. Assam, Lakhimpur, Demaji, Tinsukia, Jorhat districts. Alternate names: Chutiya, Deuri, Dewri, Drori, Dari.  Dialects: Deori may constitute its own subgroup under Bodo-Garo. Not close to other languages. Dialect of Lakhimpur District is regarded as purest. Lexical similarity 77% to 93% among Deori varieties, 11% to 16% with Bodo.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Dhanki

[dhn] 138,000 (1997). Gujarat, Dangs District; Maharashtra, Jalgaon District; Karnataka; Rajasthan. Alternate names: Dhanka, Dangi, Dangri, Dangs Bhil, Tadavi, Tadvi Bhil, Kakachhu-Ki Boli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi 
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Dhanwar

[dha] 104,195 (1981 census). Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur, Raigarh, Surguja districts; Maharashtra, Akola, Amravati, Yavatmal, Nagpur, Wardha, Chandrapur, Buldana, Satara districts. Alternate names: Dhanvar, Danuwar.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone 
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Dhatki

[mki] 16,400 in India (2000). Western Rajasthan. Alternate names: Thar.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Dhimal

[dhi] 450 in India (2000 Cooper). West Bengal, 16 villages. Dialects: Eastern Dhimal.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Dhimal 
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Dhodia

[dho] 139,000 (1997). Gujarat, Surat and Valsad districts, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Rajasthan. Alternate names: Dhobi, Dhori, Dhore, Dhowari, Doria.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Dhundari

[dhd] 9,000,000 (2002 Gusain). Rajasthan, Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk, Karauli, Sawai Madhopur districts. Alternate names: Dhundari-Marwari, Jaipuri.  Dialects: 54% intelligibility with Marwari. Lexical similarity 77% between dialects; 62% to 70% with Merwari, 66 to 73% with Shekhawati, 46% to 66% with Godwari, 56% to 64% with Mewari, 64% to 73% with Harauti, 62% to 67% with Mewati.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Digaro-Mishmi

[mhu] 8,622 (2001 census). Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit District, Hayuliang, Changlagam, Goiliang circles, Dibang Valley District; Assam. Alternate names: Digaro, Digaru, Taaon, Taraon, Taying, Mishmi.  Dialects: They may not be in the Tani group, but are related to the Tani group. Lexical similarity 25% with Idu-Mishmi, 10% with Miju-Mishmi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Dimasa

[dis] 106,000 (1997). Assam, North Cachar District and Cachar Hills, Karbi Anglong, Nowgong districts; Nagaland, Haflong District. Alternate names: Dimasa Kachari.  Dialects: Dimasa, Hariamba. Related to Kachari.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Dogri

[dgo] 2,105,000 (1997). Jammu and Kashmir, between the Ravi and Chenab rivers; Chandigarh; West Bengal. Alternate names: Dhogaryali, Dogari, Dogri Jammu, Dogri-Kangri, Dogri Pahari, Dongari, Hindi Dogri, Tokkaru.  Dialects: Bhatbali, Dogri, East Dogri, Kandiali, North Dogri.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Domari

[rmt] 201,787 in India (2000 WCD). Bihar, Saran and Champaran districts; Assam; West Bengal; Uttar Pradesh; Punjab; Madhya Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir; Orissa. Alternate names: Dom, Domra Magu Hiya.  Dialects: Domaki, Wogri-Boli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom 
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Dubli

[dub] 202,000 (1991). Gujarat, Surat, Valsad, Bharuch, Vadodara districts; Maharashtra, Thana District, Talasari and Dahanu areas; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Daman and Diu; Karnataka: Rajasthan. Alternate names: Dubala, Dubla, Rathod, Talavia.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Dungra Bhil

[duh] 100,000 (2000). Gujarat, Baroda District; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra. Dialects: 84% to 89% intelligibility of Bhilori of Maharashtra. Lexical similarity 86% between subgroups, 71% to 87% with Bhilori and Noiri Bhili, below 53% with Girasia.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Duruwa

[pci] 75,000 (2000). Ethnic population: 100,000 in the ethnic group (1986), 65% in Bastar, 35% in Koraput. Chhattisgarh, Bastar Disctrict, southeast Jagdalpur Tahsil; Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: Dhurwa, Dhruva, Durva, Parji, Parjhi, Paraja, Parajhi, Thakara, Tagara, Tugara.  Dialects: Tiriya, Nethanar, Dharba, Kukanar. Nethanar dialect is central. Lexical similarity 90% to 96% between dialects, 70% to 82% lexical similarity with Halbi.  Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba 
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Dzongkha

[dzo] 3,000 in India (1996). Sikkim, Kalimpong, Darljeeling; West Bengal, just inside the Indo-Bhutan border. Alternate names: Lhoskad, Hloka.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
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English

[eng]   Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Gadaba, Bodo

[gbj] 8,000 (2000). Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam District; Orissa, Koraput District. Lamtaput block in Koraput is the largest concentration. Alternate names: Gadba, Gutob, Gutop, Gudwa, Godwa, Gadwa, Boi Gadaba.  Dialects: Munda Orissa Gadaba, Munda Andhra Pradesh Gadaba. Lexical similarity 69% to 89% among 7 varieties of Orissa, between 2 in Andhra Pradesh 73%, others 30% to 37%.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta', Gutob-Remo 
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Gadaba, Mudhili

[gau] 8,000 (2000). Andhra Pradesh, Vizianagaram, Vishakhapatnam, Salur, Pachipenta Mandals,and Srikakulam districts. Alternate names: Gadaba, Gol Gadaba, Salur Ollar Gadaba, Kondekar, Kondkor.  Dialects: 93% to 98% intelligibility among dialects. Lexical similarity 84% to 94% between dialects, 42% to 47% with Dravidian Gadaba in Pottangi, Orissa.  Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba 
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Gadaba, Pottangi Ollar

[gdb] 15,000 (2000). 4,000 to 7,000 in Pottangi Block, Koraput District (1995). Orissa, Koraput District, Pottangi and Nandapur blocks. Alternate names: Ollar Gadaba, Ollari, Ollaro, Hallari, Allar, Hollar Gadbas, San Gadaba, Gadba, Sano, Kondekar, Kondkor.  Dialects: 4 varieties investigated in Orissa had 69% to 80% lexical similarity, and with one in Andhra Pradesh 42% to 47%; 52% to 62% with Gadaba Salur in Andhra Pradesh.  Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba 
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Gaddi

[gbk] 120,000 (1997). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Brahmaur Tahsil and Holi sub-tahsils; Uttar Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir. Higher elevations in summer, lower in winter. Alternate names: Bharmauri Bhadi, Pahari Bharmauri, Panchi Brahmauri Rajput, Gaddyali, Gadiali, Gadi.  Dialects: Bharmauri, Macleod Ganj. 93% intelligibility of Mandeali, 97% of Kangri, 83% of Chambeali. Lexical similarity 74% to 80% with Palamur Kangri, 79% with Chambeali, 67% to 73% with Mandeali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Gahri

[bfu] 4,000 in India (1997). Himachal Pradesh, Gahr Valley along the Bhaga River from its confluence with the Chandra and upstream about 25 km, Biling, Kardang, Kyelang, Guskyar, Yurnad, Gumrang, Barbog, Paspara, Pyukar, Styering villages. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Ghara, Lahuli of Bunan, Boonan, Punan, Poonan, Erankad, Keylong Boli, Bunan.  Dialects: Related to Tukpa, Kanashi, Thebor, Kanam, Lippa, Sumtsu (Sumchu), Sungnam (Sungam), Zangram. Lexical Similarity 39% with Sunam, 26% to 39% with varieties of Chamba Lahuli (Pattani), 37% with Tinani, 26% to 34% with varieties of central Tibetan, 34% with Jangshung and Shumcho, 31% with Kinnaur Bhoti, 30% with Chitkuli and Nesang (Tukpa), 24% with Lhasa Tibetan, 23% with Kanauri.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Gamit

[gbl] 400,000 (2000). Gujarat, mainly Surat District, some in Bharuch, Dangs, and Valsad districts. Alternate names: Gamati, Gamti, Gamta, Gavit, Gamith, Gameti.  Dialects: Similar to Mawchi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Gangte

[gnb] 15,100 in Manipur (2001 census). Manipur, concentrated in southern Churachandpur District, 37 villages; Megalaya; Assam. Also spoken in Myanmar. Alternate names: Gante.  Dialects: Related to Thado Chin. Differs little from Vaiphei, Paite, or Zou (Singh).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Garasia, Adiwasi

[gas] 100,000 (1988 Williams). Northern Gujarat, Banaskantha District, Danta taluk; Sabarkantha District, Poshina taluk. Alternate names: Adiwasi Girasia, Girasia, Adiwasi Gujarati.  Dialects: Understand Rajput Garasia very well. Could probably use same reading materials. Lexical similarity 89% to 96% between dialects, 75% to 93% with dialects of Rajput Garasia; 79% to 92% with dialects of Patelia; 79% to 93% with Wagdi; 76% to 87% with Marwari dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Garasia, Rajput

[gra] 100,000 (IEM 1999). Rajasthan, Sirchi, Pali, and Udaipur districts; Gujarat, Banaskantha District. Alternate names: Rajput Garasia, Girasia, Grasia, Dungri Grasia, Dhungri Garasia, Dungari Garasia.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Adiwasi Garasia. Lexical similarity 94% to 99% with Gujarat and Rajasthan dialects, 75% to 93% with Adiwasi Garasia dialects; 76% to 84% with Patelia dialects; 79% to 86% with Wagdi; 67% to 84% with Marwari dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Garhwali

[gbm] 2,920,000 (2000). Uttaranchal; Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Dehra Dun, Rudraprayag districts; Himachal Pradesh. Jaunpuri and Ravai in Tehri and Uttarkashi. Alternate names: Gadhavali, Gadhawala, Gadwahi, Gashwali, Godauli, Gorwali, Gurvali, Pahari Garhwali, Girwali.  Dialects: Srinagaria, Tehri (Gangapariya), Badhani, Dessaulya, Lohbya, Majh-Kumaiya, Bhattiani, Nagpuriya, Rathi, Salani (Pauri), Ravai, Bangani, Parvati, Jaunpuri, Gangadi (Uttarkashi), Chandpuri. Kumauni is closest language; Jaunsari is sometimes referred to as a dialect of Garhwali, but most say they can't understand it. Parvati also reportedly not intelligible. Bangani more similar to Pahari dialects of Himachal. Srinagari is the literary standard. Pauri generally regarded as the 'sweetest'. Srinagari and Pauri are very similar. Lexical similarity is 53 to 84% among dialects; 54 to 69% with Hindi, 55 to 66% with Kumauni.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Garhwali 
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Garo

[grt] 575,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 677,000. Meghalaya, Garo Hills District; West Assam, Goalpara, Kamrup, Karbi Anglong districts; Nagaland, Kohima District; Tripura, South Tripura District, Udaipur subdivision; North Tripura District, Kamalpur, Kailasahar subdivisions; West Tripura District, Sadar subdivision; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar districts. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Garrow, Mande.  Dialects: A'beng (A'bengya, Am'beng), A'chick (A'chik), A'we, Chisak, Dacca, Ganching, Kamrup, Matchi. The Achik dialect predominates among several inherently intelligible dialects. The Abeng dialect is in Bangladesh. Closest to Koch.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Garo 
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Gata'

[gaq] 3,055 (1991 census). Orissa, Koraput, and Malkangiri districts, Kudumulgumma and Chitrakonda blocks, south of the Bondo Hills. Some communities in the Khairput block. 47 villages. Alternate names: Gataq, Getaq, Geta', Gta', Gta Asa, Didei, Didayi, Dire.  Dialects: Plains Geta', Hill Geta'. Ruhlen treats Plains Geta' and Hill Geta' as separate languages. Lexical similarity 68% to 93% with other Gata' varieties, 27% to 37% with Bondo varieties, 22% to 28% with Gadaba Gutob.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta', Geta' 
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Godwari

[gdx]  Rajasthan, Jhalor, Sirohi, Pali districts. Dialects: Balvi, Khuni, Madahaddi, Sirohi. 61% intelligibility of Marwari. Lexical similarity 58% to 70% between dialects; 50% to 72% with Marwari, 44% to 70% with Merwari, 45% to 69% with Shekhawati, 51% to 73% with Mewari, 46% to 66% with Dhundari, 44% to 67% with Harauti.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Gondi, Northern

[gno] 1,954,000 Betul (1997). 2,632,000 all Gondi. Madhya Pradesh, Betul, Chhindwara, Seoni, Mandla, Balaghat districts; Maharashtra State, Amravati, Wardha, Nagpur, Bhandara, Yavatmal districts. Alternate names: Gondi, Gaudi, Gondiva, Gondwadi, Goondile, Goudwal, Ghond, Godi, Gondu, Goudi.  Dialects: Betul, Chhindwara, Mandla, Seoni, Amravati, Bhandara, Nagpur, Yavatmal. Inherent intelligibility between dialects 94% to 97%. Speakers tested in some other dialects understood Amravati 94% to 97%; Betul 83% to 96%, and Seoni 82% to 97%. 58% to 78% intelligibility of Southern Gondi. A separate language from Muria, Maria of Garhichiroli, Dandami Maria, and Koya. Lexical similarity 58% to 90% among dialects.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Gondi, Southern

[ggo] 250,000 (2000). Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad District; Maharashtra, southern Yavatmal, southern Chandrapur and southeastern Garhchiroli districts. Alternate names: Koi Gondi, Telugu Gondi.  Dialects: Sironcha, Nirmal (Adilabad), Bhamragarh, Utnoor, Aheri, Rajura, Etapally Gondi. Sironcha is the dialect understood best by the others, with 90% to 98% intelligibility. 49% to 58% intelligibility of Northern Gondi. Lexical similarity 64% to 90% among dialects.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Gowlan

[goj] 20,179 (2000 WCD). Maharashtra, Amravati District, and in some cases in the same communities as Korku people. Also in Hoshangabad District. Some reported in northern Karnataka. Dialects: Dialects in Maharashtra and Karnataka reported to be different. May be closer to Hindi (Central zone) than to Marathi (Southern zone).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified 
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Gowli

[gok] 35,000 (1997). Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra, Amravati District. Alternate names: Nand.  Dialects: Nand, Ranya, Lingaayat, Khamla. Nand subdialects have 93% or higher intelligibility of the Khamla dialect. Dialect used in Madhya Pradesh appears closer to Marathi (Southern zone) than to Hindi (Central zone). Ranya has 84% to 92% lexical similarity with Nand.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified 
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Groma

[gro]  Sikkim. Alternate names: Tromowa.  Dialects: Upper Groma, Lower Groma.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
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Gujarati

[guj] 45,479,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 46,106,136. Gujarat; Maharashtra; Rajasthan; Karnataka; Madhya Pradesh. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Fiji, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Oman, Pakistan, Réunion, Singapore, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, United Kingdom, USA, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Alternate names: Gujrathi, Gujerati, Gujerathi.  Dialects: Standard Gujarati (Saurashtra Standard, Nagari, Bombay Gujarati, Patnuli), Gamadia (Gramya, Surati, Anawla, Brathela, Eastern Broach Gujarati, Charotari, Patidari, Vadodari, Ahmedabad Gamadia, Patani), Parsi, Kathiyawadi (Jhalawadi, Sorathi, Holadi, Gohilwadi, Bhawnagari), Kharwa, Kakari, Tarimuki (Ghisadi). Some Pakistani dialects are closer to standard Gujarati than others. Pakistani Gujarati is probably a subdialect of Patani (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). The Memoni ethnic group in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, and other parts of Pakistan are reported to speak a variety closer to Gujarati, while those in India are reported to speak a variety of Kachchi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Gujari

[gju] 690,315 in India (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 992,315. Ethnic population: 1,600,000 (2002) in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Delhi. Jammu, border tahsils along the Line of Control; Kashmir, Kukernag, Kangan, Tral, Doru, Pahalgam, Shopian, Kulgam, Handwara, Karnah, Kupwara, Uri tahsils; Himachal Pradesh; Uttaranchal. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Pakistan. Alternate names: Gujuri, Gujer, Gujar, Gujjari, Gurjar, Gojri, Gogri, Kashmir Gujuri, Rajasthani Gujuri, Gojari.  Dialects: Ajiri of Hazara. Poonch may be understood by others and form the basis for a standard dialect. In Pakistan, Eastern Gujari appears closer to Northern Hindko or Pahari-Potwari. Western Gujari speakers appear to understand the Eastern dialect better than vice versa. Comparison with India varieties is needed. Lexical similarity between Uttar Pradesh and Pakistan average 60%, with Poonch 76%.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Gurung, Western

[gvr] 82 in India (1961 census). West Bengal, Darjeeling. Also possibly in Myanmar. Alternate names: Gurung Kura.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Hajong

[haj] 19,000 in India (1997). Meghalaya, West Garo Hills District, western side, West and East Khasi Hills; Assam, Goalpara and Nowgong districts; Arunachal Pradesh; West Bengal. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Haijong, Hazong.  Dialects: Formerly a Tibeto-Burman language, but culturally and linguistically Hinduized and Bengalized (Breton 1997).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Halbi

[hlb] 500,000 (2000). Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat District; Chhattisgarh, open plains in Bastar District; Maharashtra; Orissa, Koraput District; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Bastari, Halba, Halvas, Halabi, Halvi, Mahari, Mehari.  Dialects: Adkuri, Bastari, Bhunjia, Chandari, Gachikolo, Kawari, Mehari, Muri (Muria), Sundi. Bhunjia, Kawari are considered to be more divergent dialects. Reported to be a creole language. Grierson called it a dialect of Marathi for convenience, but noted similarities to Bhatri, a dialect of Oriya. Mehari intelligible only with difficulty.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Harauti

[hoj] 886,000 (2002). Rajasthan, Kota, Jhalawar, Bundi, Baran districts; Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: Hadauti, Hadoti, Hadothi, Piploda.  Dialects: Sipari, Harauti. 45% of standard Marwari. Lexical similarity 73% to 81% between dialects, 57% to 67% with Merwari, 58% to 66% with Shekhawati, 44% to 67% with Godwari, 61% to 71% with Mewari, 64% to 73% with Dhundari, 52% to 70% with Mewati, 55% to 62% with Bagri.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Haryanvi

[bgc] 13,000,000 (1992 SIL). Population includes 107,000 Haryanvi proper (1997). Ethnic population: 16,000,000 (1992 SIL). Haryana; Punjab; Karnataka; Delhi; Himachal Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: Bangaru, Banger, Bangri, Bangru, Haryani, Hariyani, Hariani, Desari, Chamarwa, Jatu.  Dialects: Bangaru Proper, Deswali, Bagdi, Khadar, Mewati. 'Bagdi' is the variety used around Fatehabad and Sirsa, and south of Bhiwani (distinct from the Wagdi language in southern Rajasthan). Needs comparison with Bagri. Intelligibility among dialects is good, but Haryanvi is not intelligible with Hindi, the closest language. Closest to Braj Bhasha. Lexical similarity 92% among dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified 
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Hindi

[hin] 180,000,000 in India (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 180,764,791. Ethnic population: 363,839,000 (1997 IMA). Throughout northern India: Delhi; Uttar Pradesh; Uttaranchal; Rajasthan; Punjab; Madhya Pradesh; northern Bihar; Himachal Pradesh. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Belize, Botswana, Germany, Kenya, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, USA, Yemen, Zambia. Alternate names: Khari Boli, Khadi Boli.  Dialects: Formal vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit, de-Persianized, de-Arabicized. Literary Hindi, or Hindi-Urdu, has four varieties: Hindi (High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, Literary Hindi, Standard Hindi); Urdu; Dakhini; Rekhta. State language of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh. Languages and dialects in the Western Hindi group are Hindustani, Haryanvi, Braj Bhasha, Kanauji, Bundeli; see separate entries.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani 
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Hinduri

[hii] 138 (1961 census). Himachal Pradesh, Shimla and Solan districts. Alternate names: Handuri.  Dialects: May be a dialect of Mahasu Pahari. Masica (1991:429) says it is "transitional between Panjabi and West Pahari of Mahasui type".  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Hmar

[hmr] 50,000 (1997). Assam, North Cachar and Cachar districts; Manipur, south, Tipaimukh, Churachandpur, 35 villages; Mizoram, Aizawl, Cachar, North Cachar districts; Tripura. Alternate names: Hamar, Mhar, Hmari.  Dialects: Close to Zomi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Ho

[hoc] 1,077,000 in India (1997). Population includes 444,000 in Singhbhum, 200,000 in Oriya (1990 UBS). Jharkhand, mainly in Singhbhum District; Orissa, Mayurbhanj and Koenjhar districts; West Bengal. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Lanka Kol, Bihar Ho.  Dialects: Lohara, Chaibasa-Thakurmunda. Most speakers understand the Chaibasa and Thakurmunda dialects well, at 90% to 92% on narrative discourse. 'Kherwari' (Khanwar, Kharar, Kharoali, Kharwari) is a group name for Ho, Mundari, and Santali, which are closely related languages, and some other smaller languages or dialects. Lexical similarity 85% between most dialects, except for three on the southern and eastern edges of the Ho area.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Holiya

[hoy] 8,000 (1984 GR). Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Karnataka. Alternate names: Holar, Holari, Hole, Holian, Holu, Golari-Kannada, Gohllaru.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada 
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Hrangkhol

[hra] 18,665 in India (2000 WCD). Manipur; Assam; Tripura. Alternate names: Rangkhol.  Dialects: Hadem.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Hruso

[hru] 4,000 (1997 Breton). Arunachal Pradesh, Kameng District, Thrizino circle, 15 villages, mainly in villages of Dijungania, Jamiri, Puragaon; between Monpa on the west and the Tani languages on the east. Alternate names: Aka, Hrusso, Angka, Angkae, Tenae.  Dialects: Hruso, Levai (Bangru). No wider affiliation within Tibeto-Burman is apparent. These varieties are sometimes grouped under Tibeto-Burman as 'Hruish'. The names listed as dialects may be separate languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Idu-Mishmi

[clk] 11,041 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 11,121. Arunachal Pradesh, Dibang Valley District; Assam; West Bengal. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: "Chulikata", "Chulikotta", Ida, Idu, Midhi, Midu, Yidu Luoba.  Dialects: Closest to Digaro-Mishmi. A different language from Boga'er Lhoba. May be a dialect of Miri. Lexical similarity 7% with Miju-Mishmi, 25% with Digaro-Mishmi (IICCC).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Indian Sign Language

[ins] 2,680,000 in India (2003). All over the country. Also used in Bangladesh, Pakistan. Alternate names: Indo-Pakistani Sign Language, Urban Indian Sign Language.  Dialects: Delhi Sign Language, Calcutta Sign Language, Bangalore-Madras Sign Language, Bombay Sign Language, Bangalore-Chennai-Hyderabad Sign Language, Mumbai-Delhi Sign Language. Over 75% of signs from all regions are related. Mumbai-Delhi dialect is the most influential. Some influence from British Sign Language in the fingerspelling system and a few other signs. Developed indigenously in India. Related to Nepalese Sign Language.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Indo-Portuguese

[idb] 700 monolinguals in Korlai (1977 Theban). Maharashtra, Korlai near Bombay, Daman and Diu; Vypeen Island, and Cochin area. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based 
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Irula

[iru] 200,000 (2003). Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri, Coimbatore, Periyar, Salem, Chengai Anna districts; Karnataka; Kerala, Palakkad District; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Eravallan, Erukala, Irava, Irulan, Irular, Irular Mozhi, Irulavan, Iruliga, Iruligar, Kad Chensu, Korava.  Dialects: Irula Pallar (Urali Irula), Mele Nadu Irula (Southern Irula), Northern Irula (Kasaba, Kasava, Kasuba), Vette Kada Irula. Vette Kada had 73% intelligibility of Mele Nadu, Northern Irula had 83% intelligibility of Mele Nadu. Irula is not inherently intelligible with Tamil. Lexical similarity 78% to 86% between Mele Nadu varieties, 67% to 70% with Northern Irula, 64% to 66% with Vette Kada, 47% to 50% with Tamil.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Jad

[jda] 300 (2001 Roland-Breton). Uttaranchal, Uttarkashi district, Jadang and Nilang villages in Harsil subdivision in the gorges of the Jad Ganga. Alternate names: Bhotia, Dzad.  Dialects: Close to Spiti Bhoti.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Jangshung

[jna] 1,990 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Jangi, Lippa, and Asrang villages in Morang Tahsil. Alternate names: Jangrami, Zangram, Zhang-Zhung, Jangiam, Thebor, Thebör Skadd, Thebarskad, Central Kinnauri.  Dialects: Closest to Shumcho and Sunam. Lexical similarity 70% with Shumcho, 65% with Sunam, 51% with Chitkuli, 49% with Lower Kinnauri.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Jarawa

[anq] 300 (2001 CIIL). 300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 300 (1999 report). Andaman Islands, interior and south central Rutland Island, central interior and south interior South Andaman Island, Middle Andaman Island, west coast, 70 square km reserve. Dialects: Different from Önge and Sentinel.  Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese 
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Jaunsari

[jns] 97,000 (1997). Uttaranchal, Dehra Dun District, Chakrata tahsil, Jaunsar-Bawar Division; Himachal Pradesh. Alternate names: Jaunsauri, Jansauri, Pahari.  Dialects: Srinagar dialect is considered to be the standard by a community organization. May be intelligible with Mahasu Pahari or Garhwali. Grierson said it was also close to western Hindi. It is perceived by some as a dialect of Garhwali. Lexical similarity 63% to 70% with Garhwali dialects, 64% with Kumauni, 66% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Juang

[jun] 50,000 (2000). Orissa, southern Keonjhar, northern Angul, and eastern Dhenkanal districts. Alternate names: Puttooas, Patua, Patra-Saara, Juango.  Dialects: Not closely related to other languages. Lexical similarity 20% to 22% with Kharia.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang 
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Juray

[juy] 801,096 (2000 WCD). Orissa. Dialects: Closest to Sora.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray 
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Kachari

[xac] 59,000 (1997). Assam, North Cachar District and the Cachar Hills; Nagaland, Kohima District, Dimapur, Dhansiri administrative circles, 16 villages. Alternate names: Cachari.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Kachchi

[kfr] 806,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 866,000. Gujarat, Rann of Kachchh Area; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh; Assam; Kerala; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Orissa. Also spoken in Kenya, Malawi, Pakistan, Tanzania. Alternate names: Kachchhi, Kutchchi, Cuchi, Cutch, Kutchie, Kachi, Katch, Kautchy, Katchi.  Dialects: Jadeji. Close to Sindhi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi 
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Kadar

[kej] 2,265 (1981 census). Kerala, Ernakulam, Palakkad, and Trichur districts; Andhra Pradesh; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore, Tiruchchirappalli and Thanjavur districts. Alternate names: Kada, Kadir.  Dialects: Close to Malayalam (Thundyil 1975:246). Close to Tamil (Singh 1994). A variant form of Tamil, mixed with Malayalam elements (Shashi).  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Kaikadi

[kep] 11,846 (1971 census). Maharashtra, Jalgaon District; Karnataka. Alternate names: Kokadi, Kaikai, Kaikadia.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Kamar

[keq] 23,456 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Rewa District; Chhattisgarh, Raipur District; Maharashtra. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Kanashi

[xns] 1,400 (2002 Chauhan). Himachal Pradesh, Kullu District, Kullu Tahsil, glen of the Bios Valley, around the village of Malana (Malani). Alternate names: Kanasi.  Dialects: No intelligibility of any Tibeto-Burman languages of Lahul-Spiti and Kinnaur (Chauhan).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Kanauji

[bjj] 6,000,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Uttar Pradesh, Kanpur, Farrukhabad, Etawah, Hardoi, Shahjahanpur, Pilibhit, Mainpuri, Auraiya districts. Alternate names: Bhakha, Braj, Braj Kanauji, Kannauji.  Dialects: Kanauji Proper, Tirhari, Transitional Kanauji. Transitional Kanauji dialect is between Kanauji and Awadhi. Grierson calls it a form of Braj Bhasha. The variety spoken in Kannauj and Farrukhabad is considered the pure form. Lexical similarity 84% to 97% between all varieties of Kanauji, 72% to 76% with Bundeli, 70% to 78% with Braj Bhasha, 83% to 94% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified 
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Kangri

[xnr] 1,700,000. Himachal Pradesh, Kangra, Hamirpur, Una districts. Alternate names: Kangra-Dogri, Pahari Kangri, Pahari.  Dialects: Hamirpuri, Palampuri. Palampuri Kangri has lexical similarity 90% with Bilaspuri and Chambeali, 89% with Mandeali, 83% with Bhattiyali, 80% with MacLeod Ganj Gaddi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Kanikkaran

[kev] 25,000 (1982 GR). Kerala, Kozhikode, Ernakulam, Koliam, Trivandrum districts, Neyyattinkara and Nedumangadu taluks; Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari, and Tirunelveli districts, Tirunelveli District. Alternate names: Kanikkar, Kannikan, Kannikaran, Kannikharan, Malampashi.  Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Kanjari

[kft] 55,386 (1971 census). Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh, Aligarh, Farrukhabad, Etawah, Sitapur, Kheri districts; Rajasthan. Alternate names: Kagari, Kangar Bhat, Kangri, Kanjri.  Dialects: Kuchbandhi. It may be in the Panjabi group.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Kannada

[kan] 35,346,000 (1997). Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Kanarese, Canarese, Banglori, Madrassi.  Dialects: Bijapur, Jeinu Kuruba, Aine Kuruba. About 20 dialects; Badaga may be one.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada 
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Karbi

[mjw] 478,000. Population includes 341,000 Karbi (1997), 137,000 Amri (1997). Assam, Karbi Anglong District, Mikir and Rengma hills, Kamrup, Nowgong districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Papumpare District, Balijan circle; Meghalaya, Jaintia, and East Khasi Hills districts; Nagaland, foothills around Dimapur. Alternate names: Manchati, Karbi Karbak, Arleng Alam, "Mikir", "Mikiri", Nihang, Puta.  Dialects: Rong Kethang, Chingthang, Mirlong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Mikir 
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Kashmiri

[kas] 4,391,000 in India. Population includes including 4,370,000 Kashmiri, 21,000 Kishtwari (1997). Population total all countries: 4,611,000. Jammu and Kashmir; Punjab; Uttar Pradesh; Delhi; Kashmir Valley. Also spoken in Pakistan, United Kingdom. Alternate names: Keshur, Kaschemiri, Cashmiri, Cashmeeree, Kacmiri.  Dialects: Bakawali, Bunjwali, Standard Kashmiri, Kishtwari (Kashtawari, Kistwali, Kashtwari, Kathiawari), Miraski, Poguli, Rambani, Riasi, Shah-Mansuri, Siraji of Doda, Siraji-Kashmiri, Zayoli, Zirak-Boli. Transitional dialects to Panjabi. Kashtawari dialect is standard, other dialects are influenced by Dogri.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kashmiri 
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Katkari

[kfu] 4,951 (1961 census). Maharashtra, Raigad and Thane districts, along the foothills of the Sahayadri Range; Rajasthan, northwest, Onga, Samicha Parebati, Mubusha, Jhadol police station areas; Gujarat, Surat, Bharuch, Sabarkantha, Dang districts; Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Amboli and Dapada Panchayat areas. Alternate names: Katari, Katakari, Kathodi, Katvadi.  Dialects: Northern Katkari, Central Katkari, Southern Katkari. Referred to as a dialect of Marathi. 89% to 96% intelligibility between dialects. Lexical similarity 67% to 75% with Marathi, 77% to 90% among dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Khaling

[klr]  Darjeeling and Sikkim, scattered. Alternate names: Khalinge Rai, Khael Bra, Khael Baat.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Khamba

[kbg] 1,333 (1991). Arunachal Pradesh, West Siang District, Singa circle, Yang Sang Chu valley, Nyering, Nuykkang, Yortung, Mankota, Tashigong villages. Alternate names: Khamba Khaadi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Khamti

[kht] 8,879 in India (2000 WCD). Assam, Lakimpur District; Arunachal Pradesh, Siang and Lohit districts, Chakham, Memong, Barpathar, Mime, Kheram, M.Pong, Man Khao villages within the Namsai subdivision. Also possibly in China. Alternate names: Kham-Tai, Hkamti, Khampti, Khamti Shan, Khantis, Tai Kham Ti.  Dialects: Assam Khamti, North Burma Khamti, Sinkaling Hkamti.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Khamyang

[ksu] 50 (2003). Assam, Tinsukia District, Pawaimukh village. Alternate names: Khamjang, Khamiyang, Shyam, Tai Khamyang.  Dialects: Similar to Phake of Assam and Shan of Myanmar.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest  Nearly extinct.
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Khandesi

[khn] 1,579,000 (1997). Maharashtra, Dhule District, Sakri tahsil, Nasik District, Satna tahsil, Nandurbar district, Nandurbar and Shahada tahsils; Gujarat. Alternate names: Khandeshi, Khandish, Dhed Gujari.  Dialects: Dangri, Kunbi (Kunbau), Rangari, Khandesi, Kotali Bhil. All varieties of Khandesi tested at 90% or higher intelligibility of each other.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi 
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Kharia

[khr] 292,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 293,575. Primarily Jharkhand, Ranchi District, Simdega subdivision, Thethaitangar Anchal and Kolebira Anchal in Khunti subdivision; West Singhbhum, East Singhbhum; also Chhattisgarh, Raigarh, Jashpur, Durg, Bilaspur, Raipur districts; Orissa, Sundargarh, Sambalpur, Mayurbhanj districts; Assam; Tripura; West Bengal; Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Dhelki Kharia are centered in Raigarh district. Hill Kharia are centered in Singhbhum districts. Also spoken in Nepal. Alternate names: Haria, Kharvi, Khatria, Kheria, Khadia, Khariya.  Dialects: Dhelki Kharia, Dudh Kharia, Mirdha-Kharia.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang 
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Kharia Thar

[ksy]  Jharkhand; Orissa, Mayurbhanj District; West Bengal, Bankura, Medinipur districts. Dialects: Grierson classifies it as Western subdialect of Bengali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Khasi

[kha] 865,000 in India (1997). Assam, Cachar, Nowgong, North Cachar Hills, Lakhimpur, Kamrup districts; Meghalaya, East and West Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills districts; Manipur; West Bengal; Tripura. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Kahasi, Khasiyas, Khuchia, Kassi, Khasa, Khashi.  Dialects: Bhoi-Khasi, Lyngngam (Megam), Khasi, War, Cherrapunji (Sohra), Khynrium. Bhoi in East Khasi Hills, Nongpoh block, and Nonglung in East Khasi Hills, Umksning block are very different from standard Khasi, with different word order. Lyngngam dialect in West Khasi Hills, Mawshynrut block is divergent, and may not be a dialect (Abbi 1997). Many varieties called dialects have only partial inherent intelligibility of each other by their speakers. War (Amwi) is a separate language (B. Comrie 1989).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian 
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Khirwar

[kwx] 34,251. Madhya Pradesh, Bhind, Guna, Morena, Vidisha districts; Chhattisgarh, Surguja District. Alternate names: Khirwara, Kherwari.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Khowar

[khw] 19,200 in India (2000).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Chitral 
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Kinnauri

[kfk] 48,778 in Kinnaur District in India. Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur, and Lahul-Spiti districts, from Chauhra to Sangla and north along the Satluj River to Morang and several villages of the upper Ropa River Valley; Uttar Pradesh; Punjab; Kashmir. Alternate names: Kinnaura Yanuskad, Kanoreunu Skad, Kanorug Skadd, Lower Kinnauri, Kinori, Kinner, Kanauri, Kanawari, Kanawi, Kunawari, Kunawur, Tibas Skad, Kanorin Skad, Kanaury Anuskad, Koonawure, Malhesti, Milchanang, Milchan, Milchang.  Dialects: Nichar has 79% inherent intelligibility of Sangla. All other varieties have functional intelligibility of each other. Related languages: Kanashi, Chitkuli, Tukpa, Jangshung. Lexical similarity 76% to 90% among varieties.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Kinnauri, Bhoti

[nes] 6,000 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Morang Tahsil, upper Kinnauri Sutlej River basin where it turns into the Spiti River, Nesang village in Morang Tahsil, Puh village in Puh Tahsil. It may also be spoken in Kuno and Charang villages. Alternate names: Nyamskad, Mnyam, Myamskad, Myamkat, Nyamkat, Bud-Kat, Bod-Skad, Sangyas, Sangs-Rgyas, Bhotea of Upper Kinnauri.  Dialects: May constitute more than one language. Lexical similarity 71% with Tukpa, 63% with Mane village, 59% with Darcha village, 54% with Lhasa Tibetan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Kinnauri, Chitkuli

[cik] 1,060 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Chitkul and Rakchham villages along the Baspa River in the Sangla Valley. Alternate names: Chitkuli, Chitkhuli, Tsíhuli, Tsitkhuli, Kinnauri, Kanauri, Thebarskad.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 46% with Kinnauri, 51% with Jangshung, 43% with Shumcho, 38% with Sunam.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Kinnauri, Harijan

[kjo] 6,331 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, spoken by Scheduled Caste communities in villages throughout Kinnaur District. Alternate names: Harijan Boli, Ores Boli Chamang Boli, Sonar Boli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Koch

[kdq] 23,000 in India (1997). Meghalaya, West Garo Hills District; Assam; Tripura; Manipur; West Bengal; Bihar. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Koc, Kocch, Koce, Kochboli, Konch.  Dialects: Banai, Harigaya, Satpariya, Tintekiya, Wanang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch 
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Koda

[cdz] 300 (1991 Parkin). Ethnic population: 28,200 (1991 census). West Bengal, Burdwan and Bankura. Alternate names: Kaora, Korali, Korati, Kore, Kora, Mudi, Mudikora.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Kodagu

[kfa] 122,000 (1997). Karnataka, Coorg (Kodagu) District, around Mercara, bordering on Malayalam to the south. Alternate names: Coorge, Kadagi, Khurgi, Kotagu, Kurja, Kurug, Kodava Thak.  Dialects: May be more than one language. 66% intelligibility of Malappuram Paniya. Lexical similarity 72% with Malappuram Paniya.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu 
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Koireng

[nkd] 3,000 (2002). 1,056 in Manipur (2001 census). Manipur, Senapati District, 5 villages in Saikul and Kangpokpi subdivisions; Bishnupur District, 3 villages south of Moirang; Chandel District, 2 villages near Palel; Nagaland. Alternate names: Kwoireng, Koirng, Kolren, Koren, Quoireng, Liyang, Liyangmai, Liangmai, Liangmei, Lyengmai.  Dialects: Not intelligible with any related speech varieties (Khasung). Lexical similarity 62% to 68% with Aimol, 60% to 66% with Purum, 64% with Kharam.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Kok Borok

[trp] 691,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 791,000. Assam; eastern Tripura. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Tripuri, Tipura, Usipi Mrung, Tripura, Kakbarak, Kokbarak.  Dialects: Jamatia, Noatia, Halam, Debbarma. 13 dialects. Debbarma is spoken by the royal family and is the medium of communication with the other dialects. It is understood by all, but not vice versa.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Kolami, Northwestern

[kfb] 50,000 (1989 F. Blair). All Kolami 115,000 (1997). Maharashtra, Yavatmal, Wardha, and Nanded districts; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: Kolamboli, Kulme, Kolam, Kolmi, Kolamy.  Dialects: Madka-Kinwat, Pulgaon, Wani, Maregaon. Northwestern and Southeastern Kolami are not inherently intelligible. Kolami is probably not intelligible with Parji, Gadaba, or Pottangi Ollar. Lexical similarity 61% to 68% with Southeastern Kolami.  Classification: Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki 
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Kolami, Southeastern

[nit] 10,000 (1989 F. Blair). Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad District; Maharashtra, Chandrapur, and Nanded districts. Dialects: Metla-Kinwat, Utnur, Asifabad, Naiki. Not intelligible with Northwestern Kolami. Rao (1950) reports another dialect in Chinnoor and Sirpur taluks of Adilabad District. Naiki is different from Naikri (Zvelebil 1970:13). Lexical similarity 85% to 88% between Naiki and other Southeastern Kolami dialects; 83% between Metla-Kinwat and Utnur; 86% between Asifabad and Utnur; 60% to 74% with Northwestern Kolami.  Classification: Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki 
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Koli, Kachi

[gjk] 400,000 in India (1998). Population includes 100,000 Kachi Koli, 250,000 Rabari, 50,000 or more Vagri Meghwar, Katai Meghwar, and Zalavaria Koli. There may be a group in India, concentrated in their ancestral homeland centered around Bhuj, in the Rann of Kachchh, Gujarat. Alternate names: Bajania, Kuchi, Kachi, Katchi, Koli, Kohli, Kolhi, Kori, Kuchikoli, Vagari, Vagaria, Vaghri, Kachi Gujarati.  Dialects: Kachi, Rabari (Rahabari), Kachi Bhil, Vagri (Kachi Meghwar), Katai Meghwar, Zalavaria Koli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Koli, Wadiyara

[kxp] 403,575 in India (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 578,575. Also spoken in Pakistan. Alternate names: Wadaria, Wadhiara.  Dialects: Mewasi and Wadiyara are almost the same linguistically and are coming together as a caste. Dialects listed are distinct sociolinguistic endogamous ethnic groups. Lexical similarity 78% with Kachi Koli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Kom

[kmm] 5,000 (2003). East and central Manipur, Churachandandpur, Tamenglong, and Senapati districts, 22 villages. Alternate names: Kom Rem.  Dialects: Kolhreng. Kolhreng may be a separate language.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Konda-Dora

[kfc] 15,000 (2000). Konda-Dora in Andhra Pradesh, Visianagaram, Srikakulam, East Godavari districts; Kubi in Orissa, Koraput District; Assam. Alternate names: Porja.  Dialects: Konda-Dora (Konda), Kubi. Lexical similarity 83% between Konda and Kubi, 28% to 36% with Telugu.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Konda 
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Konkani

[knn] 4,000,000 (1999 WA). Population includes 99,000 Thakuri (1991). North and central coastal strip of Maharashtra; Karnataka; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Kerala. Alternate names: Konkan Standard, Bankoti, Kunabi, North Konkan, Central Konkan, Concorinum, Cugani, Konkanese.  Dialects: Agari of Kolaba, Parabhi (Kayasthi, Damani), Koli, Kiristav, Dhanagari, Bhandari, Thakuri (Thakari, Thakri, Thakua, Thakura), Karhadi, Sangamesvari (Bakoti, Bankoti), Ghati (Maoli), Mahari (Dhed, Holia, Parvari). The dialects listed are closely related. Related to Katkari (Kathodi, Katvadi), Varli, Phudagi, Samvedi, Mangelas.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Konkani, Goanese

[gom] 3,632,174 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 3,636,074. Southern coastal strip of Maharashtra, primarily in the districts of Ratnagari and Goa; Karnataka; Kerala. Also spoken in Kenya, United Arab Emirates. Alternate names: Gomataki, Goan.  Dialects: Standard Konkani (Goanese), Bardeskari (Gomantaki), Sarasvat Brahmin, Kudali (Malvani), Daldi (Nawaits), Chitpavani (Konkanasths), Mangalore. Daldi and Chitapavani are transitional dialects between Goanese and Standard Konkani.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Koraga, Korra

[kfd] 15,000 (1981 census). Ethnic population: Total ethnic Koraga: 16,665 (1981 census). Karnataka, Dakshina Kannada District; Kerala, Kannur, and Kasargod districts; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: Koragar, Koragara, Korangi, Korra.  Dialects: Ande, Mudu, Onti, Tappu. Related to Tulu and Bellari. Not intelligible with Mudu Koraga, Tulu, or Kannada. Structural differences in phonology with Mudu Koraga. According to Bhat there are 4 dialects, Onti (spoken in Udipi), Tappu (spoken in Hebri), Mudu (spoken in Coondapur), Ande (spoken in Mangalore).  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga 
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Koraga, Mudu

[vmd] 15,000. Ethnic population: 16,665 (1981 census). Kerala. Alternate names: Mu:du.  Dialects: Distinct from Korra Koraga, Tulu, or Kannada. Structural differences in phonology with Korra Koraga.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga 
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Koraku

[ksz]  Chhattisgarh, Surguja District; some in Jharkhand, Palamau District. Alternate names: Kodaku, Korku.  Dialects: A subgroup of the Korwa (Parkin).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari 
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Korku

[kfq] 478,000 (1997). Southern Madhya Pradesh, southern Betul District, north of and around Betul city, Hoshangabad District, East Nimar (Khandwa) District; northern Maharashtra, Amravati, Buldana, Akola districts. Alternate names: Bondeya, Bopchi, Korki, Kurku, Kuri, Ramekhera, Kurku-Ruma.  Dialects: Bouriya, Bondoy, Ruma, Mawasi (Muwasi, Muasi). Dialects in northern Maharashtra and south central Madhya Pradesh constitute one language; 82% to 97% intelligibility among them. Bouriya is most widely understood. Lexical similarity of dialects with Laki Bouriya is 76% to 82%.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Korku 
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Korlai Creole Portuguese

[vkp] 750 (1998 J.C. Clements). Maharashtra, Korlai, 200 km south of Bombay, west coast. Dialects: A blend of Portuguese and Marathi.  Classification: Creole, Portuguese based 
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Korwa

[kfp] 66,000 (1997). Jharkhand, Palamau and Gumla districts; Chhattisgarh, Surguja, Raigarh, Bilaspur districts; Orissa, Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh districts; Uttar Pradesh, Mirzapur District; West Bengal; Andhra Pradesh; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Ernga, Singli.  Dialects: Majhi-Korwa.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Kota

[kfe] 2,000 (1992). Tamil Nadu, Madras; Nilgiri Hills, Trichikadi village and a few others around Kokkal Kotagiri. Alternate names: Kotta, Kowe-Adiwasi, Kother-Tamil.  Dialects: Ko Bashai.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota 
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Koya

[kff] 330,000 (1997). Population includes 24,320 Dorli (1972 census). Estimates up to 10,000,000 speakers. Andhra Pradesh, south of the Godavari River and in adjoining districts north of the river; Maharashtra; Chhattisgarh, Bastar District; Orissa, Koraput District, Malkangiri Subdivision; 300 km east to west, 200 km north to south. Alternate names: Koi, Koi Gondi, Kavor, Koa, Koitar, Koyato, Kaya, Koyi, Raj Koya.  Dialects: Malakanagiri Koya, Podia Koya (Gotte Koya), Jaganathapuram Koya (Gommu Koya, Godavari Koya), Dorli (Chintoor Koya, Korla, Dora, Dor Koi, Dora Koi, Dorla Koitur, Dorla Koya). Chintoor is the linguistic center. The Malkangiri and Podia varieties are more divergent. A separate language from Gondi.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi 
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Kudiya

[kfg] 2,462 (1981 census). Kerala, Kannur, Kasargod districts; Karnataka, Coorg and Dakshina Kannada districts; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: Male Kudiya.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu 
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Kudmali

[kyw] 37,000 (1997). Bihar; West Bengal; Orissa; Assam, Darrang, Sonitpur, Golaghat, Jorhat districts. Alternate names: Kurmali, Kurumali, Kurmali Thar, Bedia, Dharua.  Dialects: Related to Sadri. Possibly the same as Panchpargania.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Kui

[kxu] 717,000 (1997). Orissa, Phulbani, Koraput, Ganjam districts, Udayagiri area in Ganjam; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: Kandh, Khondi, Khond, Khondo, Kanda, Kodu, Kodulu, Kuinga, Kuy.  Dialects: Khondi, Gumsai.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi 
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Kukna

[kex] 570,419 (1981 census). Gujarat, Dangs, and Valsad districts; Maharashtra, Dhule, Nasik, and Thane districts; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Karnataka, Dakshina Kannada (Kanara) District; Rajasthan. Alternate names: Kanara, Kanara Konkani, Kokna, Kokni.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Kulung

[kle]  Sikkim; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri District; Uttaranchal, Dehradun. Alternate names: Khulunge Rai, Kulu Ring, Khulung, Kholung.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Kumarbhag Paharia

[kmj] 20,179 (2000 WCD). Population includes several thousand in West Bengal. Jharkhand, central part of former Santhal Pargana District, Sundar Pahari Block of Godda District, and all but southernmost block of Pakaur District. Reported in at least Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts of West Bengal; Orissa, Mayurbhanj. Alternate names: Malto, Malti, Maltu, Maler, Mal, Mad, Paharia, Pahariya, Kumar.  Dialects: Low comprehension of Mal Paharia. Related to Kurux. Lexical similarity 80% with Mal Paharia.  Classification: Dravidian, Northern 
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Kumauni

[kfy] 2,360,000 in India (1998). Uttaranchal, Almora, Nainital, Pithoragarh, Bageshwar, Champawat, Udhamsingh Nagar districts; Assam; Bihar; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Nagaland. Central Kumauni is in Almora and northern Nainital, Northeastern Kumauni is in Pithoragarh, Southeastern Kumauni is in Southeastern Nainital, Western Kumauni is west of Almora and Nainital. Also spoken in Nepal. Alternate names: Kamaoni, Kumaoni, Kumau, Kumawani, Kumgoni, Kumman, Kunayaoni.  Dialects: Central Kumauni, Northeastern Kumauni, Southeastern Kumauni, Western Kumauni. People report the eastern dialects to be different. Names sometimes listed for dialects or subgroups are: Askoti, Bhabari of Rampur, Chaugarkhiya, Danpuriya, Gangola, Johari, Khasparjiya, Kumaiya Pachhai, Pashchimi, Phaldakotiya, Kumaoni, Rau-Chaubhaisi, Sirali, Soriyali. Most closely related to Garwhali and Nepali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Central Pahari 
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Kupia

[key] 4,000 (1983 SIL). Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam and East Godavari districts. Alternate names: Valmiki.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Kurichiya

[kfh] 29,375 (1981 census). Kerala, Wynad, Kannur, Kozhikode districts; Tamil Nadu, Dharampuri District. Alternate names: Kurichia, Kurichchia, Kowohans, Kurichiyars, Kuruchans.  Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Kurmukar

[kfv] 3,000 in India (2000). Assam, Barpeta, Goalpara, Dhubri districts; Tripura, West Bengal, Bihar, a few in Madhya Pradesh. Also spoken in Nepal. Alternate names: Karmakar, Kamar, Kumar, Kumhar, Kumbhakar.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Kurumba

[kfi] 179,793 (2000 WCD). Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District, Pollachi, Western Fields, Western Gate Hills; Dharmapuri, South Arcot, and Chingalpattu districts; in pockets in Salem and North Arcot districts; Theni District, Cumbari Valley; Dindukat District, Sirumalai, Senkuruchi Hillocks, Palani; Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Korambar, Kuramwari, Kurumar, Kurumba Kannada, Kurumbar, Kurumvari, Kuremban, Kuruba, Kurubas Kuruban, Kurubar, Kuruma, Kuruman, Kurumans, Kurumbas, Kurumban, Palu Kurumba, Southern Kannada, Canarese.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu 
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Kurumba, Alu

[xua] 2,500 (1997). Tamil Nadu, eastern side of Nilgiri Hills. Alternate names: Alu Kurumba Nonstandard Kannada, Pal Kurumba, Hal Kurumba.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 80% between Alu and Pal.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu 
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Kurumba, Betta

[xub] 32,000 (2003). Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri District; Karnataka, Mysore District, north side of Nilgiri Hills, just east of Kerala border; Kerala, Wynad District. Alternate names: Betta Kurumba Nonstandard Tamil, Kadu Kurumba, Urali Kurumba.  Dialects: A nonstandard variety of Tamil or Kannada. May be the same as Betta Kuruba in Coorg District. Lexical similarity 59% to 77% among groups that are called 'Betta Kurumba'.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Kurumba, Jennu

[xuj] 35,000 (1997). North side of Nilgiri Hills on the border between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, just east of the Kerala border, Mysore and Kodagu districts of Karnataka; Kerala, Wynad District. Alternate names: Jennu Kurumba Nonstandard Kannada, Jen Kurumba, Ten Kurumba, Jennu Nudi, Naikan, Kattu Nayaka, Naik Kurumba.  Dialects: May or may not be the same as Jeinu Kuruba, a variety of Kannada. Lexical similarity 61% to 83% among varieties called 'Jennu Kurumba', less than 60% lexical similarity with Betta Kurumba dialects.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu 
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Kurumba, Mullu

[kpb] 6,000 (1994 Singh). Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri District; Kerala, Wynad District. Dialects: Lexical similarity 34% to 41% with other Kurumba languages.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu 
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Kurux

[kru] 2,053,000 in India (1997). Population includes 1,834,000 Oraon, 219,000 Kisan. Bihar; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh, Surguja districts; Jharkhand Ranchi District; West Bengal, Jalpaigiri District; Orissa, Sundargarh District; Assam; Tripura. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Uraon, Kurukh, Kunrukh, Kadukali, Kurka, Oraon, Urang, Kisan, Kunha, Kunhar, Kunuk, Kunna, Kuda, Kora, Koda, Kola, Morva, Birhor.  Dialects: Oraon, Kisan. Kisan and Oraon have 73% intelligibility. Oraon becoming standardized. Related to Malto. Different from Nepali Kurux.  Classification: Dravidian, Northern 
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Kuvi

[kxv] 300,000 (1990 UBS). Orissa, mainly Koraput District, also Kalahandi, Ganjam, and Phulbani districts; Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam districts. Alternate names: Kuwi, Kuvinga, Kuvi Kond, Kond, Khondi, Khondh, Jatapu.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi 
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Ladakhi

[lbj] 102,000 in India (1997). Population includes 29,800 to 33,300 Shamma (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977.328). Population total all countries: 114,000. Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh District, 250 villages and hamlets. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Ladaphi, Ladhakhi, Ladak, Ladwags.  Dialects: Leh (Central Ladakhi), Shamma (Sham, Shamskat, Lower Ladakhi), Nubra Ladakhi. Perhaps 30% to 40% intelligibility of Tibetan. Leh is used as the medium of communication. Leh speakers understand Zangskari and Changthang at more than 90% on recorded text tests. Not known if speakers of all dialects understand Leh well. Leh is in Leh and surrounding areas. Shamma is west of Leh along the Indus Valley and to the south of Khaltse. Nubra is in Nubra Tahsil north of Leh. Lexical similarity 71% to 83% with Purik, 53% to 60% with Tibetan, 84% to 94% among 5 main dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western, Ladakhi 
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Lambadi

[lmn] 2,867,000 (1994). Population includes 1,961,000 Lambadi (1994), plus 769,120 Banjari. Andhra Pradesh; Madhra Pradesh; Himachal Pradesh; Gujarat; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Orissa; West Bengal. Alternate names: Lamani, Lamadi, Lambani, Labhani, Lambara, Lavani, Lemadi, Lumadale, Labhani Muka, Banjara, Banjari, Bangala, Banjori, Banjuri, Brinjari, Gohar-Herkeri, Goola, Gurmarti, Gormati, Kora, Singali, Sugali, Sukali, Tanda, Vanjari, Wanji.  Dialects: Maharashtra Lamani, Karnataka Lamani (Mysore Lamani), Andhra Pradesh Lamani (Telugu Lamani).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Lamkang

[lmk] 10,000 in India (1999 village govt. census). Southeast Manipur, Chandel District, 6 villages in West of Chandel District east of Shuganu, 6 villages on the road between Chalong and Mombi New, 18 villages on roads between Palel and Chandel town and Palel and Sibong; Nagaland; Dimapur, Thamlakhuren; 1 village in Myanmar: Betukshangreng, 20 km from the border with Southeast Manipur. Also spoken in Myanmar. Alternate names: "Lamgang", "Hiroi-Lamgang", Lamkaang, Lamkang Naga.  Dialects: Closest to Anal Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Lepcha

[lep] 38,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 75,826. Sikkim, Dzongu District; West Bengal, Darjeeling District, Kalimpong. Also spoken in Bhutan, Nepal. Alternate names: Lapche, Rong, Rongke, Rongpa, Nünpa.  Dialects: Ilammu, Tamsangmu, Rengjongmu. Has been classified both in Himalayan and Naga groups. Classification still uncertain.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Lepcha 
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Lhomi

[lhm] 1,000 in India. West Bengal, Darjeeling. Alternate names: Lhoket, Shing Saapa.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Limbu

[lif] 28,000 in India (1997). Sikkim, mainly West District; West Bengal, Darjeeling District. Alternate names: Limbo, Lumbu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Lisu

[lis] 1,000 in India (2000 J.R.L. Breton). Arunachal Pradesh, Changlang District, Miao and Vijaynagar circles. Alternate names: Yobin, Yawyin.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Lisu 
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Lodhi

[lbm] 75,000 (1997). Orissa, Mayurbhanj and Baleshwar districts; West Bengal, Medinipur District. Alternate names: Lodha, Lodi, Lohi, Lozi.  Dialects: Related to Sora.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray 
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Lohar, Gade

[gda] 1,009 (2000 WCD). Rajasthan; Gujarat; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Uttar Pradesh; Delhi; Haryana; Punjab. Alternate names: Gaduliya Lohar, Lohpitta, Rajput Lohar, Bagri Lohar, Bhubaliya Lohar, Lohari, Gara, Domba, Dombiali, Chitodi Lohar, Panchal Lohar, Belani, Dhunkuria, Kanwar Khati, Chittoriya Lohar, Gadia Lohar.  Dialects: No significant dialect differences. May be the same as Loarki listed in Pakistan.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Lohar, Lahul

[lhl] 750 (1996). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul Valley. Alternate names: Garas, Lohar.  Dialects: A different language from Gade Lohar.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Magahi

[mag] 13,000,000 (2002). Bihar, Gaya, Bhagalpur, eastern Patna districts; Jharkhand, northern Chotanagpur Division, Hazaribagh District; West Bengal, Maldah District. Alternate names: Magadhi, Magaya, Maghai, Maghaya, Maghori, Magi, Magodhi, Bihari, Megahi.  Dialects: Southern Magahi, Northern Magahi, Central Magahi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Magar, Eastern

[mgp] 67,691 in India (2000). Sikkim, concentrated in South District, scattered in East District. Alternate names: Magari, Manggar, Mangari, Magarkura.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Magar 
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Mahali

[mjx] 66,000 (1991). Jharkhand, Chotanagpur Region; Orissa, Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar districts; West Bengal; Assam. Alternate names: Mahili, Mahli, Mahle.  Dialects: Possible dialect of Santali.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali 
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Maithili

[mai] 22,000,000 in India (1981). Population total all countries: 24,797,582. Bihar, from Muzaffarpur on the west, past the Kosi on the east to western Purnia District, to the districts of Munger and Bhagalpur in the south, and the Himalayan foothills on the north. Cultural and linguistic centers are the towns of Madhubani and Darbhanga. Janakpur also important culturally and religiously. Delhi, Calcutta, Bombay have thousands. Many have settled abroad. Also spoken in Nepal. Alternate names: Maitli, Maitili, Methli, Tirahutia, Bihari, Tirhuti, Tirhutia, Apabhramsa.  Dialects: Standard Maithili, Southern Standard Maithili, Eastern Maithili (Khotta, Kortha, Kortha Bihari), Western Maithili, Jolaha, Central Colloquial Maithili (Sotipura), Kisan, Dehati. Caste variation more than geographic variation in dialects. Functional intelligibility among all dialects, including those in Nepal. Closest to Magahi. Brahmin and non-Brahmin dialects average 91% lexical similarity.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Majhi

[mjz] 246 in Sikkim (1981 census). Jharkhand, Gumla District; Sikkim, South District, Majhigaon near Jorethang, East District, Majhitar near Rangpo; West Bengal; Assam. Alternate names: Manjhi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Majhwar

[mmj] 27,958. Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur District, Katghora tahsil, Raigarh and Surguja districts; Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad, Varanasi, Mirzapur districts; Sikkim. Alternate names: Majhvar, Manjhi, Manjhia.  Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Asuri.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Mal Paharia

[mkb] 51,000 to 71,000 (1994). Possibly 40,000 in West Bengal. Ethnic population: 110,983 (2000 WCD). Jharkhand southern part of former Santal Pargana District, Ramgarh Hills. Mainly in Dumka District, but many villages are in Pakaur, southern Godda, and Deoghar districts, and a few as far north as Depart village north of Borio in Sahibganj District. Reported in at least Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts of West Bengal. Possibly in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Malto, Malti, Maltu, Maler, Malpaharia, Marpaharia, Mal Pahariya, Mal, Manlati, Mar, Maw, Mawdo, Mawer, Mawer Nondi, Mad, Mader, Dehri, Paharia, Parsi.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Kumarbhag Paharia, Sauria Paharia, Bengali, or Hindi. Part of the Malto ethnic group. Speak a variety similar to Kharia Thar of Manbhum (Bihar). Dialects have 85% or higher lexical similarity with each other, but 59% with Mal Paharia Barmasiya and 55% with Khorta Babudoha.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Malankuravan

[mjo] 7,339 (1981 census). Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari District; Kerala, Trivandrum, Kollam, Kottayam districts, Chittar, Kattachira, Rajanpara in the Ranni Range, Pathanamthitta Taluk, Nottakal in the Pathanapuram Taluk, on the banks of the Pampa River and in the forest tracts of Neduvanged Taluk. Alternate names: Malaikuravan, Malakkuravan, Mala Koravanm, Male Kuravan.  Dialects: Malayadiars.  Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Malapandaram

[mjp] 3,147 (1981 census). Kerala, Kottayam, Ernakulam, Pathanamthitta and Koliam districts; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: Malapantaram, Malepantaram, Hill Pantaram, Pandaram Basha.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Malaryan

[mjq] 16,068 (1991 census). Kerala, Ernakulam, Idukki, Kottayam, and Trichur districts; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: Arayans, Karingal, Malai Arayan, Malayarayan, Malayarayar, Male Arayans, Maley Arayan, Vazhiyammar.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Malavedan

[mjr] 15,241 (1991 census). Kerala, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Koliam, Trivandrum districts; Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari and Tirunelveli districts. Alternate names: Malai Vedan, Malavetan, Towetan, Vedans.  Dialects: Vetan, Vettuvan.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Malayalam

[mal] 35,351,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 35,757,100. Kerala, Laccadive Islands, and neighboring states. Also spoken in Bahrain, Fiji, Israel, Malaysia, Qatar, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom. Alternate names: Alealum, Malayalani, Malayali, Malean, Maliyad, Mallealle, Mopla.  Dialects: Malabar, Nagari-Malayalam, Malayalam, South Kerala, Central Kerala, North Kerala, Kayavar, Namboodiri, Moplah, Pulaya, Nasrani, Nayar. Caste and communal dialects: Namboodiri, Nayar, Moplah, Pulaya, Nasrani.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Maldivian

[div] 4,500 in India (1997). Minicoy Island in the Laccadive Islands in India. Alternate names: Malikh, Mahl, Malki, Devehi, Divehli, Divehi Bas.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Sinhalese-Maldivian 
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Malvi

[mup] 1,102,000 (1997). Madhya Pradesh, Ujjain, Indore, Rathlam, Mandsaur, Rajgarh districts; Rajasthan, Chittaurgarh, Jhalawar districts; Maharashtra; Gujarat. Sondwari dialect geographically isolated from the others. Alternate names: Malavi, Mallow, Malwada, Malwi, Ujjaini.  Dialects: Bachadi, Bhoyari, Dholewari, Hoshangabad, Jamral, Katiyai, Malvi Proper, Patvi, Rangari, Rangri, Sondwari (Soudhwari). Considered the standard dialect of Southeastern Rajasthani. Nimadi is closest language linguistically with 70% intelligibility. 88% to 99% intelligibility of Ujjaini dialect by other dialects. Lexical similarity 65% to 89% among dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Manda

[mha] 4,036 (2000 WCD). Orissa, Kalahandi District, Thuamul Rampur Subdivision. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo 
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Mandeali

[mjl] 776,372 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Mandi District. Alternate names: Mandi, Pahari Mandiyali, Mandiali, Himachali.  Dialects: Preliminary survey suggests Mandeali speakers have functional intelligibility of Dogri-Kangri. Lexical similarity 89% with Palampuri Kangri, 83% with Chambeali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Manna-Dora

[mju] 18,964 (1981 census). Andhra Pradesh, East Godavari, Srikakulam, Vishakhapatnam, Vizianagaram districts; Tamil Nadu. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu 
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Mannan

[mjv] 7,289 (1991 census). Kerala, Idukki District, Udumpanchola, Devikulam, Pirmed tahsils; Tamil Nadu, Madurai district. Alternate names: Manne, Mannyod.  Dialects: Little variation between varieties of Mannan with 92% intelligibility, 70% intelligibility of Malayalam. Lexical similarity 86% to 96% between varieties of Mannan, 57% to 61% with Tamil, 56% to 64% with Malayalam.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam 
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Marathi

[mar] 68,030,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 68,049,787. Maharashtra and adjacent states. Also spoken in Israel, Mauritius. Alternate names: Maharashtra, Maharathi, Malhatee, Marthi, Muruthu.  Dialects: Cochin, Gawdi of Goa, Kasargod, Kosti, Kudali, Nagpuri Marati. 42 dialects. The dialect situation throughout the greater Marathi speaking area is complex. Dialects bordering other major language areas share many features with those languages. See separate entries for dialects or closely related languages: Konkani, Goanese, Deccan, Varhadi-Nagpuri, Gowlan. There is a dialect in Thanjavur District and elsewhere in Tamil Nadu, which has been influenced by Tamil and Kannada words, with at least 100,000 speakers.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone 
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Maria

[mrr] 134,000 (1997). Maharashtra, Garhchiroli (Chanda) District, Etapalli, Bhamragad, and Sironcha tahsils; Madhya Pradesh, Bastar District, Narayanpur and Bijapur tahsils. In Narayanpur, an administrative block of 200 villages is known as 'Abujhmar block'. Alternate names: Hill Maria, Madi, Madia, Madiya, Modh, Modi.  Dialects: Abujmaria (Abujhmadia, Abujhmaria, Abujmariya, Abujmar Maria, Hill Maria), Adewada, Bhamani Maria (Bhamani), Etapally Maria. Etapally Maria is apparently understood by all. A separate language from Muria, Dandami Maria, Northern Gondi, Southern Gondi, and Koya. 76% to 77% intelligibility of other Gondi varieties. Muria Gondi is intelligible to Abujmaria around Narainpur area but not elsewhere. "Distinct from Maria dialect of Chanda District MH" (Natarajan). Intelligibility 90% to 100% of Bhamragarh dialect by other Maria speakers. Maria is intelligible with the speech of the Gatte Maria, an ethnic group. Lexical similarity 59% to 80% among dialects (Beine), 65% to 98% (Vaz).  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Maria, Dandami

[daq] 200,000 (2000). Chhattisgarh, central and southern Bastar District, Dantewara tahsil; Maharashtra, Garhichiroli District. Alternate names: Bison Horn Maria, Maria Gond, Madiya, Dhuru, Dandami Madiya.  Dialects: Geedam, Sukma (Suka). Geedam and Bailadila have 95% to 98% intelligibility of each other, 81% of Sukma, but 18% to 21% of Maria, 18% to 45% of Muria. Speakers in Sukma understood Geedam at 81% or lower; those in Bailadila understood Sukma at 92%. May be more than one language. A separate language from Northern Gondi, Southern Gondi, Maria of Garhichiroli, and Koya.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Marwari

[rwr] 13,000,000 in India (2002 Gusain). Population total all countries: 13,022,637. Rajasthan, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Pali, Jalore districts; Gujarat; Madhya Pradesh; Punjab; Delhi; Haryana; Uttar Pradesh; thoughout India. Also spoken in Nepal, Pakistan. Alternate names: Marvari, Rajasthani.  Dialects: Barmeri, Bikaneri, Jaisalmeri, Standard Marwari (Jodhpuri). The standard form of Rajasthani. May or may not be different from Marwari of Pakistan. 67% intelligibility by Shekhawati, 61% by Godwari, 54% by Mewari, 54% by Dhundari, 45% by Harauti, 45% by Mewati. Lexical similarity 57% to 69% between dialects; 49% to 74% with Merwari, 51% to 68% with Shekhawati, 50% to 72% with Godwari, 56% to 70% with Mewari, 53% to 60% with Dhundari, 50% to 60% with Harauti, 50% to 61% with Mewati; 80% to 85% among some Gujarat and Rajasthan Marwari Bhil dialects; 75% to 80% with Wagdi; 75% to 83% with Patelia; 67% to 87% with Adiwasi Girasia; 67% to 84% with Rajput Girasia.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Mawchi

[mke] 76,000 (1997). Southwest Gujarat; Maharashtra, Dhule District. Alternate names: Mauchi, Mavchi, Mawachi, Mowchi, Mawchi Bhil.  Dialects: Gamti, Mawchi, Padvi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Meitei

[mni] 1,240,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 1,261,000. Manipur (most); Assam, Cachar, Karimganji; Nagaland; Tripura, West and North Tripura districts; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Myanmar. Alternate names: Meithei, Meithe, Mithe, Mitei, Meiteilon, Meiteiron, Manipuri, Menipuri, Kathe, Kathi, Ponna.  Dialects: Meitei, Loi (Chakpa), Pangal (Manipuri Muslim). Intelligibility of Meitei in Bangladesh is difficult.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Meitei 
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Merwari

[wry] 1,312 (2000 WCD). Rajasthan, Ajmer, Nagaur districts. Alternate names: Ajmeri.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% to 73% between varieties of Merwari in Ajmer and Nagaur districts; 49% to 74% with Marwari, 58% to 80% with Shekhawati, 44% to 70% with Godwari, 54% to 72% with Mewari, 62% to 70% with Dhundari, 57% to 67% with Harauti.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Mewari

[mtr] 1,058,000 (1997). Rajasthan, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Chittoaurgarh districts; Gujarat; Haryana; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: Mewadi.  Dialects: Gorawati, Sarwari, Khairari. 54% intelligibility of Marwari. Lexical similarity 69% to 81% between dialects, 56% to 70% with Marwari, 54% to 72% with Merwari, 57% to 66% with Shekhawati, 51% to 73% with Godwari, 56% to 64% with Dhundari, 61% to 71% with Harauti.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Mewati

[wtm] 5,000,000 (2002 Gusain). Rajasthan, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur districts; Uttar Pradesh, Madhura District; Haryana, Gurgaon, Faridabad districts. Alternate names: Mewathi.  Dialects: 45% intelligibility of Marwari. Lexical similarity 72% to 77% with Hindi, 63% to 68% with Haryanvi, 57% to 70% with Shekhawati, 62% to 67% with Dhundari, 52% to 70% with Harauti, 68% to 71% with Braj Bhasha.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified 
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Miju-Mishmi

[mxj] 6,500 (2001). Assam; Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit District, 25 villages, high altitudes of eastern part, including upper Lohit and Dau valleys, the area to the east of the Haguliang, Billong, and Tilai valleys. Alternate names: Kaman, Mishmi, Miji, Miju.  Dialects: Conflicting reports about Miju-Mishmi closeness to Idu-Mishmi and Digaro-Mishmi. They are ethnically related, but may not be linguistically close. Related to Kachin, Chin and Lepcha languages (Chowdhury). Idu-Mishmi can understand Miju-Mishmi and Digaro-Mishmi. Lexical similarity 7% with Idu-Mishmi, 10% with Digaro-Mishmi (IICCC).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Mina

[myi] 900,000 (1991). Madhya Pradesh, Gwalior, Shivpuri, Guna, Rajgarh districts, Vidisha District, Sironj Subdivision; Rajasthan, Jaipur, Alwar, Bharatpur, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk, Bundi, Ajmer districts. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Mirgan

[zrg] 12,000 (1992). Population includes 10,000 in Orissa, 2,000 in Madhya Pradesh. Chhattisgarh, Bastar District; Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: Panika, Panka, Mirkan, Mirgami.  Dialects: Dialects have good intelligibility. Not functionally intelligible with Halbi. Lexical similarity 83% to 95% among dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Miri

[mrg] 400,000 (1998). Population includes 10,050 Hill Miri. Assam, North Lakhimpur, Sonitput, Dhemaji, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar, Jorhat, Golaghat, Tinsukia districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Lower Subansiri District, Ziro subdivision, a few villages near Pasighat, on both sides of the Kamla River; Upper Subansiri District, Daporizo subdivision. The Hill Miri are in Arunachal Pradesh, the Plain Miri are in Assam. Alternate names: Mishing, Mising, Takam.  Dialects: Idu may be a dialect.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Mizo

[lus] 529,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 542,541. Mizoram; Assam; Manipur, Churachandpur District; Nagaland; Tripura, Jampui Hill range. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Myanmar. Alternate names: Dulien, Duhlian Twang, Lusai, Lushai, Lusei, Lushei, Lukhai, Lusago, Sailau, Hualngo, Whelngo.  Dialects: Fannai, Mizo, Ngente, Tlau, Le. Related to Hmar, Pankhu, Zahao (Falam Chin).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Moinba

[mob] 46,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 82,000. Arunachal Pradesh, Tawang, and West Kameng districts. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Monba, Mompa, Monpa, Momba, Menba, Men-Pa.  Dialects: Matchopa Nagnoo (But), Chug, Sangla (Dirang), Kalaktang (Southern Monpa), Kishpignag (Lish), Monkit (Northern Monpa, Tawang). The Lish, But, and Chug dialects differ from the others, resembling Aka, Miji, and Sherdukpen languages (Singh). Chowdhury says Lish and Chug dialects are "markedly different and distinct from Monpa." Identical or closely related to Cuona Monpa in Tibet and Brokpa and Brami of Bhutan (Andvik 2002).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Mru

[mro] 1,231 in India (1981 census). West Bengal, Nadia and Hoogly districts. Alternate names: Mro, Murung, Niopheng, Mrung.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Mru 
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Mugom

[muk] 100 families in India. Himachal Pradesh, Kullu, Manali mainly; also Kinnaur, Dharmshala, Ladakh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Mukha-Dora

[mmk] 17,456 (1981 census). Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram districts. Alternate names: Conta-Reddi, Mukha Dhora, Nooka Dora, Nuka-Dora, Reddi, Reddi-Dora, Riddi.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Mundari

[muw] 2,069,000 in India (1997). Population includes 1,022,000 Mundari, 519,000 Munda, 528,000 Bhumij. Population total all countries: 2,074,700. Assam; Jharkhand, mainly in southern and western parts of Ranchi District; Himachal Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Orissa; Tripura; West Bengal; Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Nepal. Alternate names: Mandari, Munari, Munda, Mondari, Horo, Colh, Killi.  Dialects: Hasada', Latar, Naguri, Kera', Bhumij (Sadar Bhumij, Bhumij Munda, Bhumij Thar). Related to Ho and Santali, but a separate language. 75% intelligibility of Ho. Lexical similarity 70% to 84% with Bhumij.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Muria, Eastern

[emu] 10,089 (2000 WCD). Chhattisgarh, Northeastern Bastar District; Orissa, northwestern Koraput District. Dialects: Raigarh, Lanjoda. 95% intelligibility between dialects; 73% to 83% of Western Muria; 19% to 34% of Northern Gondi; 35% of Dandami Maria.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Muria, Far Western

[fmu] 10,089 (2000 WCD). Maharashtra, northern Garhchiroli District, Kurkhed Taluk. Dialects: 79% to 88% intelligibility of other Muria languages; 74% of Dandami Maria, 0% to 34% of Northern Gondi, 6% to 50% of Southern Gondi, 2% to 70% of Maria.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Muria, Western

[mut] 12,898 (1971 census). Chhattisgarh, northern and western Bastar District. Alternate names: Jhoria, Mudia, Muria Gondi.  Dialects: Sonapal, Banchapai, Dhanora. 80% to 96% intelligibility among dialects, 69% to 73% of Eastern Muria, 51% to 78% of Far Western Muria. Not inherently intelligible with Dandami Maria, Northern Gondi, Southern Gondi, or Maria.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Muthuvan

[muv] 12,219 (1981 census). Kerala, Idukki district, Devikulam tahsil, Devikulam and Adimali blocks; Kozhikode, Kannur, Ernakulam, Kottayam, and Trichur districts; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District, Udumalpet and Valparai tahsils, Anaimalai Hills; Madurai district, Cardamom hills; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Mudavan, Muduvar, Mudugar, Mutuvar, Muduvan.  Dialects: Western (Malayalam Muthuvan, Nattu Muthuvan), Eastern (Tamil Muthuvan, Pandi Muthuvan). 82% to 87% between dialects, eastern dialect more intelligible to western than vice versa, 80% intelligibility of Malayalam. Lexical similarity 77% to 88% between dialects, 62% to 67% with Tamil, 58% to 68% with Malayalam.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Na

[nbt] 1,500 (est. for year 2000 by Roland-Breton 1997). Arunachal Pradesh, Upper Subansiri District; Taksing circle, Gumsing, Taying, Esnaya, Lingbing, Tongla, Yeja, Reding, Redi, Dadu villages. Dialects: Has an affinity with Tagin (dialect of Nisi) (Singh 95).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Naga Pidgin

[nag] 30,000 (1989 J. Holm). Nagaland, especially Kohima District, Dimapur Subdivision; bordering areas of Arunachal Pradesh. Alternate names: Nagamese, Naga-Assamese, Naga Creole Assamese, Kachari Bengali, Bodo.  Dialects: A variety farthest from Assamese is spoken by the Yimchenger Naga, and varieties closest to Assamese by the Angami Naga, and around Dimapur and Kohima.  Classification: Creole, Assamese based 
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Naga, Angami

[njm] 109,000 (1997). Western Nagaland, Kohima District; Manipur; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Gnamei, Ngami, Angamis, Tsoghami, Tsugumi, Monr, Tsanglo, Tendydie.  Dialects: Kohima, Dzuna, Kehena, Khonoma, Chakroma (Western Angami), Mima, Nali, Mozome, Tengima, Tenyidie (Tenyidye). Kohima dialect is now standard Angami. Naga Chokri and Naga Kezhama are eastern Angami groups with their own dialects. Tenyidye is the standard dialect and is understood by all. There are 2 southern varieties (Viswemal, Jakhama) that are not intelligible with these.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Ao

[njo] 141,000 (1997). Northeastern Nagaland, central Mokokchung District; Assam. Alternate names: Aorr, Paimi, Cholimi, Nowgong, Hatigoria, Uri, Ao.  Dialects: Mongsen Khari, Changki, Chongli (Chungli), Dordar (Yacham), Longla.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao 
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Naga, Chang

[nbc] 31,000 (1997). Assam; east central Nagaland, Tuensang District, 36 villages. Alternate names: Chang, Mojung, Machongrr, Mochumi, Mochungrr, Changyanguh.  Dialects: Close to Wancho Naga. Dialect of Tuensang village is central dialect and intelligible to all.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Chokri

[nri] 24,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 24,000. Nagaland, Phek District, Cheswezumi is the main village. Alternate names: Eastern Angami, Chakrima Naga, Chakru, Chokri, Chakhesang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Chothe

[nct] 3,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,600. Southeast Manipur, Chandel District, 15 villages, Khongkhang, Chandolpokpi, Lunghu, Lirungtabi, Zeonthang, Ajouhu, Pumthapokpi, Laininghu, Chandrapoto, Tampokhu, Lamlanghupi, Purumchumbang, Old Wangparal, New Wangparal, Lungle; Nagaland, near Myanmar border. Alternate names: Chothe, Chowte, Chawte.  Dialects: Closest to Tarao Naga. Reported intelligibility of Aimol. Lexical similarity less than 60% with any neighboring languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Inpui

[nkf] 10,000 (2000 Bapt Assn). Manipur, Senapati, Tamenglong, Imphal districts, 16 villages; Nagaland, 4 villages near Dimapur including New Zaluke, Mahei Namchi, Peren; Assam. Alternate names: Inpui, Kabui, Kapwi, Koboi, Kubai, Kabui Naga.  Dialects: Considered by some to be the same language as Puimei Naga. Lexical similarity 68% with Puimei Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Kharam

[kfw] 1,400 (2000 SIL). Manipur, Senapati District, Phaijol, Laikot, Thuisenpai villages (15–22 km northeast of Imphal), Kharam Pallen village (37 km northwest of Imphal). Alternate names: Thinglong, Duisalongmei.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 71% to 73% with Purum, 58% to 60% with Kom, 64% with Koireng.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Khezha

[nkh] 23,000 (1997). Eastern Nagaland, Kohima District, Khezhakhonoma, Phek District. Alternate names: Kezami, Khezhama, Khezha.  Dialects: An eastern Angami group with its own language.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Khiamniungan

[nky] 25,000 in India (1997). Nagaland, east central part of Tuensang District. Also spoken in Myanmar. Alternate names: Khiamngan, Khiamniungan, Khienmungan, Khemungan, Kemmungam, Kalyokengnyu, Makware, Nokaw, Para, Ponyo, Aoshedd, Welam.  Dialects: A divergent member of the Konyak subgroup.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Khoibu

[nkb] 25,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 25,600. Manipur, southeast, Laiching; mountainous regions along the northern border of Chandel District, Khoibu, Narum, Yangkhul, Saibol villages. Alternate names: Khoibu, Khoibu Maring, Khoibu Maring Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Tangkhul 
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Naga, Konyak

[nbe] 105,000 (1997). Assam, Sibsagar District, Nagagaon, Bortol villages near Simulguri township; northeast Nagaland, Mon and Tuensang districts. Alternate names: Kanyak, Konyak.  Dialects: Angphang, Hopao, Changnyu, Chen, Chingkao, Chinglang, Choha, Gelekidoria, Jakphang, Kongon, Longching, Longkhai, Longmein, Longwa, Mohung, Tableng, Mon, Mulung, Ngangching, Sang, Shanlang, Shunyuo, Shengha, Sima, Sowa, Shamnyuyanga, Tabu, Tamkhungnyuo, Tang, Tobunyuo, Tolamleinyua, Totok. Tableng is standard dialect spoken in Wanching and Wakching. Close to Phom Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Liangmai

[njn] 20,000 (1997 BSI). Nagaland, Kohima District, Jhaluke, Paren, Medzephima blocks, upper Barak Valley. Alternate names: Kacha, Liyang, Liangmai, Lyengmai, Liangmei, Lyangmay.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Lotha

[njh] 80,000 (1997). Nagaland, west central, Workha District. Alternate names: Chizima, Choimi, Hlota, Kyong, Lhota, Miklai, Tsindir, Lutha, Lotha, Tsontsii.  Dialects: Live, Tsontsu, Ndreng, Kyong, Kyo, Kyon, Kyou.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao 
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Naga, Mao

[nbi] 81,000 (1997). Northwest Manipur, Senapati District; Nagaland. Alternate names: Mao, Spowama, Sopvoma, Maikel, Memi, Sopfomo, Emela.  Dialects: Paomata. Related to Angami. Breton says Paomata and Pome (alt. name for Poumei) are the same.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Maram

[nma] 25,000 (2000). Ethnic population: 25,000. Assam; north Manipur, Senapati District, 5 villages near Senapati, 26 villages near Maram; Imphal District. Alternate names: Maram.  Dialects: Willong Circle, Maram Khullen Circle, T. Khullen, Ngatan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Maring

[nng] 17,361 (2001 census). Manipur, southeast, Laiching; mountainous regions along the northern border of Chandel District, Tengnoupal subdivision. Alternate names: Maring.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Tangkhul 
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Naga, Monsang

[nmh] 3,200 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,200. Manipur, Chandel District, Chandel subdivision, Liwchangning, Heibunglok, Liwa Sarei, Japhou, Monsang Pantha villages; Northern Nagaland, near Myanmar border. Alternate names: Moshang, Monshang, Mushang, Mawshang.  Dialects: Closest to Moyon Naga and Anal.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Moyon

[nmo] 3,700 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,700. Nagaland, near Myanmar border; Manipur State, Chandel District, 14 villages including Moyon Khullen, Khongjom, Mitong, Komlathabi, Penaching, Heigru Tampak. Alternate names: Moyon, Mayon Naga, Mayol.  Dialects: Related to Monsang Naga and Anal.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Mzieme

[nme] 29,000 (1997). Southwestern Nagaland, northeast of Zeme. Alternate names: Mzieme, Northern Zeme.  Dialects: Different from Zeme Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Nocte

[njb] 35,000 (2001 Mema). Southeastern Arunachal Pradesh, Tirap District, Khonsa, Namsang, Laju circles; Changlang District; Assam, Lakhimpur District, Jaipur; Northern Nagaland, Mon District, Namsang. Alternate names: Borduria, Jaipuria, Mohongia, Namsangia, Nocte, Nokte, Paniduria.  Dialects: Khapa, Laju, Ponthai (Lamlak). Close to Tase Naga. Ponthai may be the name of an ethnic group, not a dialect. 50% intelligible with Wancho Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Northern Rengma

[nnl] 13,000 (1997). Nagaland; Kohima District, northern section of Rengma. Kotsenyu is chief village of Ntenyi. Alternate names: Ntenyi, Ntenyi Naga, Nthenyi, Northern Rengma.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Phom

[nph] 34,000 (1997). Northeastern Nagaland, Tuensang District, Longleng Subdivision, 36 villages. Alternate names: Phom, Phon, Tamlu Naga, Chingmengu, Tamlu.  Dialects: Yongyasha. Close to Konyak.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Pochuri

[npo] 13,000 (1997). Southeast Nagaland. All 27 villages are in the Meluri Subdivision of Phek District. Alternate names: Pochuri, Pochury.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Poumei

[pmx] 51,000 (1997). Manipur. Alternate names: Poumei, Paumei, Pomai, Pome.  Dialects: Close to Mao. Not the same as Puimei (Breton 1997:217).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Puimei

[npu] 3,000 in Manipur (2001). Ethnic population: 3,000. Manipur; Assam. Alternate names: Puimei.  Dialects: Different from Poumei (Breton 1997:217). Not functionally intelligible with any related language (Khasung). Lexical similarity 68% with Inpui Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Unclassified 
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Naga, Purum

[puz] 503 (2001 census). Manipur, Senapati District, Purumlikli, Purumkhulen, Purumkhunou, Waicheiphai, Moibunglikli villages; Chandel District, Lamlang Huipi, Chandanpokpi, Khongkhang Chothe, Loirang Talsi, Salemthar, Zat'lang, New Wangparan. Dialects: 95% intelligibility of Kharam, a nearby language. Lexical similarity 60% to 65% with Kom, 60% to 66% with Koireng, 57% to 60% with Aimol, 71% to 73% with Kharam.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Rongmei

[nbu] 59,000 (1997). Northwest Manipur; Nagaland; Assam, Cachar District. Alternate names: Maruongmai, Nruanghmei, Rongmei, Rongmai, Kabui.  Dialects: Songbu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Sangtam

[nsa] 39,000 (1997). Southeast Nagaland, Tuensang District, Kiphire Subdivision and Chare Circle. Alternate names: Sangtam, Isachanure, Lophomi.  Dialects: Kizare, Pirr (Northern Sangtam), Phelongre, Thukumi (Central Sangtam), Photsimi, Purr (Southern Sangtam). Standard is based on Tsadanger village dialect (Singh). Kizare spoken north of Meluri. It is not known how much it differs from other Sangtam.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao 
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Naga, Southern Rengma

[nre] 21,000 (1997). West central Nagaland, Kohima District, Tseminyu subdivision; Assam; Manipur. Tseminyu is the main center for the principal dialect. Alternate names: Rengma, Rengma Naga, Mozhumi, Moiyui, Mon, Unza, Nzong, Nzonyu, Injang, Southern Rengma.  Dialects: Keteneneyu, Azonyu (Nzonyu, Southern Rengma). Tseminyu is the main center for the principal dialect. Southern Rengma and Northern Rengma are reported to be inherently unintelligible to each other's speakers.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Sumi

[nsm] 132,000 (1997). Central and southern Nagaland, Zunheboto, Kohima, Mokokchung, Tuensang districts; Assam, Tinsukia District, seven villages. Dayang is spoken near the Dayang River. Alternate names: Sema, Simi, Sumi.  Dialects: Dayang (Western Sumi), Lazemi, Zhimomi, Zumomi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Tangkhul

[nmf] 110,000 (1997). Manipur, Ukhrul District; Nagaland; Tripura. Alternate names: Tangkhul, Tagkhul, Thangkhulm, Champhung, Luhuppa, Luppa, Somra.  Dialects: Ukhrul, Khunggoi, Khangoi, Kupome, Phadang. Ukhrul is principal dialect.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Tangkhul 
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Naga, Tarao

[tro] 870 (2000). Manipur: Chandel District, 3 villages near Palel (Heikakpokpi, Leishokching, Khuringmul), Laiminei village; Ukhrul District, Sinakeithei village. Alternate names: Tarao, Tarau, Taraotrong.  Dialects: Closest to Chothe Naga, 70% intelligibility. Lexical similarity less than 60% with any neighboring languages; 43% to 46% with Chothe.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Tase

[nst] 45,000 in India (2001 Chamchang). Southeastern Arunachal Pradesh, Changlang District, Eastern Hills, Tirap River valley and Namchik area; Assam. Alternate names: Cham Chang, Rangpan, Tangsa, Tasey.  Dialects: Have (Havoy), Higsho, Higtsii, Kimsing (Khemsing, Chamchang), Longphi (Longkhi), Lungchang, Lungri, Miti, Moklum, Mosang, Mungray (Morang), Ngemu, Ponthai, Rongrang, Ronrang (Poerah), Sangche, Sangwal, Sanke (Shangge, Sechu), Taipi, Tikhak, Tonglim, Yogli (Jugli), Yongkuk (Yukok).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Thangal

[nki] 23,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 23,600. North Manipur, Senapati District, hill ranges of East and West Sadar Hills subdivisions, 9 villages along National Highway #39, Mapao Thangal, Thangal Surung, Makeng Thangal, Tumnoupokpi, Yaikangpou, Tikhulen, Ningthoubam, Mayangkhang, and Gailongde. Most are east of Barak Valley groups. 250 square miles. Alternate names: Khoirao, Khoirao Naga, Koirao, Kolya, Mayangkhang, Miyang-Khang, Ngari, Thangal, Thanggal, Tukaimi.  Dialects: Close to Maram.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Tutsa

[tvt] 25,000 (2001). Arunachal Pradesh, south Changlang and east Tirap districts. Alternate names: Totcha, Tutsa.  Dialects: Close to Nocte and Tase, but intelligible only with difficulty.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Wancho

[nnp] 45,000 (1997). Assam; Nagaland; southeastern Arunachal Pradesh, Tirap District, 36 villages on the southwestern side. Alternate names: Wancho, Banpara Naga, Joboka.  Dialects: Changnoi, Bor Muthun (Bor Mutonia), Horu Muthun, Kulung Muthun (Mithan). There is a significant variation between the language spoken in the upper regions and that in the lower ones. (Singh) Close to Chang Naga and Konyak Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Yimchungru

[yim] 37,000 (1997). Nagaland, northern between Namchik and Patkoi, Tuensang District. Alternate names: Yanchunger, Yimchungru, Yimchunger, Yimchungre, Tozhuma, Yachumi.  Dialects: Tikhir, Wai, Chirr, Minir, Pherrongre, Yimchungru. The last three dialects listed are southern.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao 
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Naga, Zeme

[nzm] 30,800 (2001). Ethnic population: 30,800. Manipur, Tamenglong District; Nagaland, Kohima District, Jhaluke, Paren, Medzephima blocks; Assam, large upper Barak Valley. Alternate names: Kachcha, Kacha, Kutcha, Mezama, Sangrima, Sengima, Arung, Empui, Jeme, Zemi.  Dialects: Paren, Njauna.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Nagarchal

[nbg] 7,090 (1971 census). Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Mandla, Seoni districts; Chhattisgarh, Durg District; Maharashtra, Bhandara District; Rajasthan. Alternate names: Nagar, Nagarchi.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Nahali

[nlx] 15,000 (2003). Maharashtra, Nandurbar District, Dhadgaon tahsil, 12 villages around Toranmal, Jalgaon district; Chopda tahsil, north of Amalwadi. Alternate names: Kalto, Nahal, Nahale.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 58% to 68% with Noiri varieties, 60% to 61% with Dungra Bhil, 69% to 73% with Bareli Pauri.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Nahari

[nhh] 108 (1961 census). Chhattisgarh, Raipur, Bilaspur districts; Orissa, Sambalpur District. Alternate names: Nahali.  Dialects: A more divergent variety, related to Halbi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Nefamese

[nef]  Arunachal Pradesh. Alternate names: Arunamese.  Dialects: Most closely related to Adi Galo.  Classification: Pidgin, Assamese based 
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Nepali

[nep] 6,000,000 in India (1984 Far Eastern Economic Review). West Bengal, Darjeeling area; Sikkim; Assam; Arunachal Pradesh; Bihar; Haryana; Himachal Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh; Uttaranchal; Manipur; Mizoram; Nagaland; Meghalaya, Tripura. Alternate names: Nepalese, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Parbatiya, Eastern Pahari.  Dialects: Gorkhali, Palpa, Nepali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari 
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Newar

[new]  Sikkim; West Bengal; Some in Bettiah, Bihar; Andamans. Alternate names: "Newari".  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Newari 
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Nicobarese, Car

[caq] 30,000 (1997). North Nicobar Islands, Car Island. Alternate names: Pu, Car.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Car 
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Nicobarese, Central

[ncb] 2,200 (1981). Population includes 800 Nancowry, 1,400 closely related dialects (1981 Radhakrishnan). 22,100 in all six Nicobarese languages (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Nicobar Islands, Katchal, Camorta, Nancowry, and Trinket islands. Alternate names: Nicobar.  Dialects: Camorta (Kamorta), Katchal (Kachel, Tehnu), Nancowry (Nancoury), Trinkut (Trinkat). Related to Car, Chaura, Shom Peng, Southern Nicobarese, Teressa.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Nancowry 
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Nicobarese, Southern

[nik] 5,045 (2000 WCD). Nicobar Islands, Little Nicobar and outer Great Nicobar islands. Alternate names: Nicobara.  Dialects: Condul (Kondul), Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar, Milo, Sambelong, Tafwap.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Great Nicobar 
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Nihali

[nll] 2,000 (1991 Parkin). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987). Maharashtra, Buldana District, Jamod Jalgaon tahsil. Alternate names: Nihal.  Dialects: Nihal in Chikaldara taluk and Akola District have 25% lexical similarity with Korku (Munda).  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Nimadi

[noe] 1,359,000 (1997). Madhya Pradesh, Khandwa, Khargone, Barwani, and southern Dhar districts; Uttar Pradesh; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Nemadi, Nimari, Nimiadi.  Dialects: Bhuani. Dialects have 90 to 100% inherent intelligibility among speakers. Lexical similarity 74% to 94% among dialects, 64% to 75% with Malvi, 62% to 77% with Hindi, 56% to 64% with Gujarati, 49% to 58% with Marathi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Nisi

[dap] 261,000 (1997). Population includes 37,300 Tagin. Assam, Darrang District; Arunachal Pradesh, Lower Subansiri and East Kameng districts. Alternate names: "Dafla", "Daphla", Nissi, Nishi, Nyising, Nyishi, Bangni, Lel.  Dialects: Aka Lel, Bangni, Tagin, Nishang. Related to Apatani, Adi, Yano, possibly Lepcha. Tagin may be a separate language. Apatani may be a dialect of Nisi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Noiri

[noi] 100,000 (2003 Varghese). Maharashtra, Nandurbar District, Dhadgaon, Akkalkua, and Shahada tahsils; Dhule District, Shirpur Tahsil; Jalgaon District, Chopda Tahsil; Madhya Pradesh, Badwani District, Pansemal Tahsil. Alternate names: Bhilori, Mathwadi.  Dialects: Barutiya. Highly intelligible with Dungra Bhili. Barutiya have high acquired intelligibility of Vasavi and Bareli Pauri. Lexical similarity 77% to 87% with Dungra Bhili, 60% to 71% with different Vasavi varieties, 58% to 68% with Nahali of Toranmal, 47% to 54% with Kotali; Barutiya lexical similarity 64% to 70% with Bareli Pauri. Noiri-Barutiya falls between Vasavi and Bareli on a dialect continuum.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Önge

[oon] 96 (1997 CIIL). Speakers are mainly monolingual. Ethnic population: 110 (1999 report). Southern Andaman Islands, Dugong Creek and South Bay islands. Alternate names: Ong.  Dialects: A distinct language from Sentinelese.  Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese 
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Oriya

[ori] 31,666,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 31,698,534. Orissa; Jharkhand, Singhbhum, Ranchi districts; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh, Raipur, Bastar districts; West Bengal, Medinipur (Midnapore) District; Assam; Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam District. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Uriya, Utkali, Odri, Odrum, Oliya, Orissa, Vadiya, Yudhia.  Dialects: Mughalbandi (Oriya Proper, Standard Oriya), Southern Oriya, Northwestern Oriya, Western Oriya (Sambalpuri), North Balasore Oriya, Midnapore Oriya, Halbi. Some of the larger dialects have many subdialects. Sambalpuri around Sambalpur and Sundargh needs intelligibility testing with Standard Oriya.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Oriya, Adivasi

[ort] 150,000 (1991 U. Gustafsson). Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam District, Araku Valley. Alternate names: Adiwasi Oriya, Tribal Oriya, Kotia Oriya, Kotiya.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 38% to 42% between Andhra Pradesh varieties and Standard Oriya, 80% to 85% with Desiya dialects in Orissa.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Oriya, Desiya

[dso] 50,000 (2003). Orissa, Koraput district, Lamtaput block, Nowrangpur District. Alternate names: Desiya, Desia, Deshia, Koraput Oriya.  Dialects: Intelligible with Adivasi Oriya but uses different scripts. Lexical similarity 80% to 85% with Adivasi Oriya dialects in Andhra Pradesh.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Pahari, Kullu

[kfx] 109,000 (1997). All Pahari 2,173,000 (1997). Himachal Pradesh, Kullu District. Alternate names: Kului, Kullui, Kauli, Kulu Boli, Kulu Pahari, Pahari, Pahari Kullu, Phari Kulu, Kulvi, Kulwali.  Dialects: Inner Siragi (Inner Seraji, Siragi, Siraji, Saraji), Kllui, Outer Seraji. Inner Siraji is apparently different from Siraji-Kashmiri. Lexical similarity 85% or higher among dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Pahari, Mahasu

[bfz] 500,000 (1992). Population includes 3,976 Baghati (1961 census). Himachal Pradesh, Shimla (Simla) and Solan districts. Alternate names: Mahasui.  Dialects: Lower Mahasu Pahari (Kiunthali, Baghati, Baghliani), Upper Mahasu Pahari (Shimla Siraji, Sodochi, Rampuri, Rohruri). The Kiunthali subdialect appears to be understood by speakers of the other varieties, and their attitude toward it is favorable. The Rampuri subdialect is also called 'Kochi'; the Rohruri subdialect also called 'Soracholi'. Intelligibility among dialects is above 85%. Lexical similarity 74% to 82% with upper dialects, 74% to 95% with lower dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Paliyan

[pcf] 8,615 (1991 census). Kerala, Idukki district, Pirmed tahsil, Kumily, Vandanmedu, Chakkupallam panchayats; Ernakulam, Kottayam districts; Tamil Nadu, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Thanjavur, Pudukkottai, Tirunelveli, Coimbatore districts; Karnataka. Alternate names: Palaya, Palayan, Paliyar, Malai Paliyar, Palliyar, Poliyar, Palleyan, Palani, Makkal, Seramar.  Dialects: Mala Pulayan (Hill Pulaya, Karavazhi). Lexical similarity 75% with Tamil, 62% with Malayalam, 85% with Mala Pulayan.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Panchpargania

[tdb] 274,000 (1997). Jharkhand, Ranchi, Singhbhum districts; West Bengal; Assam, tea gardens of upper Assam. Alternate names: Tamaria, Tair, Tamara, Temoral, Tumariya, Tanti, Chik Barik, Bedia, Pan, Pan Sawasi.  Dialects: Related to Sadri. Possibly the same as Kudmali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Pangwali

[pgg] 17,000 (1997). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul-Spiti District, Udaipur down the Chenab (Chandra-Bhaga) River to the Chamba border at Purthi, and possibly from Tandi to the Sanch Pass. Another dialect over the pass; Chamba District, Pangi Tahsil. Alternate names: Pahari, Pangi, Pangwali Pahari.  Dialects: Reported to be nearly the same as Bhadrawahi. 64% inherent intelligibility of Mandeali, 52% of Kangri, 44% of Chambeali. Lexical similarity 55% with Hindi, 77% with Kullui Pahari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Paniya

[pcg] 63,827 (1981 census). Population includes 56,952 in Kerala, 6,393 in Tamil Nadu, 482 in Karnataka. Kerala, Wynad, Kozhikode, Kannur, Malappuram districts; Tamil Nadu, west of Nilgiris Hillls; Karnataka. Alternate names: Pania, Paniyan, Panyah, Nil.  Dialects: Intelligibility of Malappura Paniya by Kodagu is 66%. Dialects have 79% to 88% lexical similarity with Malappura Paniya, Kodagu has 71%.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Panjabi, Eastern

[pan] 27,109,000 in India. Population includes 26,975,000 Panjabi, 134,000 Bhatneri (1991). Population total all countries: 28,006,704. Punjab, Majhi in Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts, Bhatyiana in South Firozpur District; Rajasthan, Bhatyiana in north Ganganagar District; Haryana; Delhi; Jammu and Kashmir. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Canada, Fiji, Kenya, Malaysia, Mauritius, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, USA. Alternate names: Punjabi, Gurmukhi, Gurumukhi.  Dialects: Panjabi Proper, Majhi, Doab, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Powadhi, Malwa, Bathi. Western Panjabi is distinct from Eastern Panjabi, although there is a chain of dialects to Western Hindi (Urdu). Bhatyiana considered to be a mixture of Panjabi and Rajasthani. See separate entry for Dogri-Kangri.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Panjabi 
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Panjabi, Mirpur

[pmu] 1,022,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 1,042,000. Kashmir, Mirpur area, near Pakistan border. Also possibly in Pakistan. Also spoken in United Kingdom. Alternate names: Mirpuri.  Dialects: Distinct from Western Panjabi, although closely related.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda 
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Panjabi, Western

[pnb] 27,386 in India (1991 census). Jammu and Kashmir; Delhi; Haryana. Alternate names: Hindki, Western Punjabi, Lahnda, Lahanda, Lahndi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda 
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Pankhu

[pkh] 234 in India (1971). Mizoram, Chhimtuipui, Lunglei districts, 12 villages. Alternate names: Pankho, Panko, Pangkhu, Pankhua, Pang Khua, Pankua, Paang, Pang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Pao

[ppa] 7,223 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Satna, Chhatarpur, Datia, Panna, Rewa, Shahdol, Sidhi, Tikamgarh districts. Alternate names: Pabra.  Dialects: May not be Tibeto-Burman.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Pardhan

[pch] 116,919 (1981 census). Andhra Pradesh, Adilbad District; Madhya Pradesh, Seoni, Mandla, Chhindawara, Hoshangabad, Betul, Balaghat, Jabalpur districts; Chhattisgarh, Raipur, Bilaspur districts; Maharashtra, Bhandara, Garhchiroli, Nagpur, Wardha,Yavatmal districts. Alternate names: Pradhan, Pradhani.  Dialects: Probably more than 1 language.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Pardhi

[pcl] 119,700 (2000). Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Gujarat; Maharashtra; scattered over wide area. Alternate names: Bahelia, Chita Pardhi, Lango Pardhi, Paidia, Paradi, Paria, Phans Pardhi, Takankar, Takia.  Dialects: Neelishikari, Pittala Bhasha, Takari. Probably more than 1 language (Lango). Possibly a dialect of Bhili.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Parenga

[pcj] Ethnic population: 767 (2002). Orissa, Koraput District; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Parengi, Pareng, Parenga Parja, Parenji, Poroja, Gorum, Gorum Sama.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Gorum  Nearly extinct.
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Parsi

[prp] 151,341 in India (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 326,341. Gujarat; Maharashtra. Also reported to be in Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, Germany, Hong Kong, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, southern and western Africa, elsewhere in Europe. Also spoken in China, Pakistan, United Kingdom, USA. Alternate names: Parsee.  Dialects: Parsi is reported to not be inherently intelligible with Parsi-Dari, from whom they separated 600 to 700 years ago or more. Other reports say they came to India 1300 years ago. Related to Dari in Iran.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Pattani

[lae] 11,000 (1997). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul Valley, Pattan, Chamba-Lahul, and lower Mayar valleys. Alternate names: Manchati, Manchad, Patni, Chamba, Chamba Lahuli, Lahuli, Swangla, Changsapa Boli.  Dialects: Chamba-Lahuli (Western Pattani), Eastern Pattani, Central Pattani. Western Pattani has 63% to 55% lexical similarity with Tinani, 39% to 26% with Bunan, 37% with Shumcho, 35% with Jangshung, 33% with Sunam, 31% with Chitkuli and Kanauri, 25% with Puh and Kinnaur District varieties (Kinnaur Bhoti) of Tibetan, 22% with Nesang, 18% with Lhasa Tibetan, 14% to 15% with the Spiti and Stod varieties of Tibetan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Pengo

[peg] 350,000 (2000). Orissa, Koraput District, Kashipur, Pappadahandi, Nowrangapur, Dasamantapur and Nandapur tahsils, Kalahandi District. Alternate names: Pengu, Hengo, Hengo Poraja, Jani, Muddali, Paraja, Pango, Pengua, Pango Paraja.  Dialects: Indi, Awe.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo 
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Phake

[phk] 5,000 (1990 Diller). Assam, Dibrugarh District, Bor-phake, Nam-phake, Tipam-phake, Man-long, Man-po-mung, Pha-neng, Ning-gam, Nong-lai, Mung-lang villages along the Dihing River; Arunachal Pradesh. Alternate names: Phakial, Phakey, Faake.  Dialects: Close to Aiton. Similar to Shan of Myanmar.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Phudagi

[phd] 1,009 (2000 WCD). Maharashtra, Thane District. Alternate names: Vadval.  Dialects: A more divergent dialect of, or closely related language to, Konkani.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Pnar

[pbv] 84,000 in India (1991). Population total all countries: 88,000. Meghalaya, Khasi and Jaintia Hills, north of the War Jaintia; Mizoram, Aizawl District, north; Assam, North Cachar Hills, Jatinga, Borolokha, Dibruchera; Karbi Anglong District, Ulukunchi. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Dialects: Jaintia (Synteng), Nongtung. Formerly considered to be a dialect of Khasi. Jaintia dialect has 12 spoken forms: Jowai, Shangpung, Batau, Raliang, Sutnga, Sumer, Martiang, Barato, Rymbai, Lakadong, Mynso, Nongtalang. All are intelligible except for Nongtalang which is akin to Khmer. Jowai is the standard spoken form.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian 
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Powari

[pwr] 213,874 (1991 census). Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1986 All India Powar council). Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat, Seoni, Chindwara, Betul districts; Maharashtra, Wardha, Bhandara, Gondia districts. Dialects: Bhoyar Powari (Bhoyari, Bhomiyari, Bhoyaroo, Bhuiyar, Bhuria, Bohoyeri), Vyneganga Powari, Govari of Seoni, Khalari, Koshti, Kumbhari, Lodhi, Marari. Reported intelligibility between Bhoyar and Vyneganga. Balaghat district dialect is considered central among Bhoyar and Vyneganga varieties. Lexical similarity 60% to 87% among dialects; Koshti, Kumbhari, and Khalari cluster at 80% to 83%; 49% to 65% with Bagheli, 46% to 64% with Bundeli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone 
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Purik

[prx] 132,000 (1991). North Kashmir, Kargil District. Suru Valley is the main population center. It is the dominant group in Suru, a sizeable minority is in Dras Valley, and a minority is in the western Himalayas. Alternate names: Purigskad, Burig, Purig, Purki, Purik Bhotia, Burigskat.  Dialects: Close to Balti.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western 
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Rabha

[rah] 139,365 (2004). Ethnic population: 200,000 (2002). West Assam, Darrang, Goalpara, Kamrup districts; Nagaland; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri, Alipurduar Subdivision, Cooch Behar District, Tafangunj Subdivision; Meghalaya, East Garo Hills District. Alternate names: Rava.  Dialects: Maitaria (Maituri, Maitoria), Rangdania (Rongdani). Maituri and Rongdania have inherent intelligibility to each other's speakers. There is a third dialect called Koch Rabha, spoken in Assam close to West Bengal border. It is not intelligible with Rongdania (Fr. Jose 2002). Possibly as many as 7 dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch 
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Rajbanshi

[rjb] 2,839,481 in India (1991 census). Population total all countries: 2,982,280. West Bengal, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Maldah, Murshidabad districts; Assam, Goalpara District; Bihar, Purnia District. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Nepal. Alternate names: Kamtapuri, Rajbangsi, Rajbansi, Rajbongshi, Tajpuri.  Dialects: Western Rajbanshi, Central Rajbanshi, Eastern Rajbanshi. Central dialect has majority of speakers and is quite uniform; it is used in publications. Western dialect has more diversity. Lexical similarity 77% to 89% between dialects, 48% to 55% with Hindi, 43% to 49% with Nepali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Ralte

[ral] 303 in India (2000 WCD). Mizoram, mainly Aizawl District, scattered in Lunglei and Chhimtuipui districts; Manipur; Tripura, a few villages in the Jampui Hills. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Rathawi

[rtw] 308,640 (1981 census). Gujarat, Baroda and Panchmahals districts. Alternate names: Kohelia, Bal-La.  Dialects: 76% intelligibility of Bhilali. There is a dialect continuum from Bhilali to Rathawa, but the extremes have limited intelligibility of each other. Lexical similarity 83% with Bhilali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Ravula

[yea] 27,413 (1981). Population includes 19,261 Yerava in Karnataka (1981 census), and 8,152 Adiya in Kerala (1981 census). Karnataka, Coorg (Kodagu) District; Kerala, Wayanad and Kannur districts. Alternate names: Adiya, Adiyan, Yoruba, Yerava, Panjiri Yerava, Iryavula.  Dialects: Adiya, Pani Yerava, Panjiri Yerava. 93% to 94% dialect intelligibility between Yerava and Adiya. Relationship of Pani Yerava is uncertain. May be a dialect of Ravula or of Paniya. Lexical similarity 83% to 98% among Yerava and Adiya varieties, 53% to 61% with Standard Malayalam, 35% to 40% with Badaga, 32% to 42% with Colloquial Kannada, 66% to 74% Pani Yerava with Adiya and Yerava.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Rawang

[raw] 60,536 in India (2000 WCD).  Alternate names: Nung Rawang, Ganung-Rawang, Hkanung, Numg, Krangku, Taron, Kiutze, Ch'opa, Chiutse.  Dialects: Kunlang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish 
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Rawat

[jnl] 2,926 in India (2000 WCD). Uttaranchal, Pithoragarh District, north of Askot Maila, 9 villages. Alternate names: Dzanggali, Janggali, Jangali, Jhangar, Raut, Raji, Ban Rauts, Ban Manus, Bhulla.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Janggali 
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Reli

[rei] 19,000 (1997). Andhra Pradesh, near Adiwasi Oriya; Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: Relli.  Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Oriya.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Riang

[ria] 139,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 140,011. Assam, Karimganj District; central Tripura; Mizoram, Aizawl, Lunglei, Chhimtuipui districts, mostly along bank of Karnafuli River, 30 villages. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Reang, Kau Bru, Tipra.  Dialects: Considered to be a dialect of Kok Borok.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Rongpo

[rnp] 7,500 (2001 D. Bradley). Uttaranchal, Chamoli district, Joshimath Tahsel, Niti valley, Niti, Gamshali, Bampa, Malari villages; Mana valley, Mana, Indradhara, Gajkoti, Pathiya-Dhantoli, Hanuman Chatti, Benakuli, Aut; Marchha dialect in Mana and Niti valleys, Tolchha in Niti valley (very few in number). Alternate names: "Manchhi Bhassa", "Marchha", "Marchha Pahari", Rangkas, Rangpa, Rang Po Bhasa, "Tolchha".  Dialects: "Marchha", "Tolchha". A Himalayan language distinct from Tibetan. Differences between Marchha and Tolchha dialects are phonetic only.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish 
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Ruga

[ruh]  Meghalaya, near the Garo. Dialects: Most closely related to A'tong, Koch, Rabha. Not inherently intelligible with Garo.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch  Nearly extinct.
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Sadri

[sck] 1,965,000 in India (1997). Population includes 1,381,000 Sadani, 574,000 Nagpuria. Population total all countries: 2,165,000. Jharkhand, Ranchi, Palamu districts; Assam; Madhya Pradesh; West Bengal; Orissa; Andaman Islands; Nagaland. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Sadani, Sadana, Sadati, Sadari, Sadhan, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri, Sadhari, Sadan, Nagpuria, Nagpuri, Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Gawari, Ganwari, Goari, Gauuari, Jharkhandhi.  Dialects: Intelligibility of all dialects with each other is high, except for Sadri of Bangladesh, where it is 77%. Speakers name 3 kinds of Sadri: Sadani (finer, respectful, formal), Common Sadri (Nagpuri), and Lower Sadri (rough). Dialects have 77% to 96% lexical similarity, 58% to 71% with Hindi, 47% to 54% with Oriya, 45% to 61% with Bengali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Sajalong

[sjl] 4,000 (1999 Breton). Arunachal Pradesh, West Kemang District, Bichom and Pakesa River valley, 25 villages including Debbing, Dichik, Rurang, Nachinghom, Upper Dzang, Naku, Khellong, Dibrick, Nizong, Najang, Zangnaching, Chalang, Nafra, Lower Dzang; East Kameng District including villages of Wakke, Nabolong, Kojo, Rojo, Sekong, Panker, Zarkam, Drackchi, Besai, Naschgzang, Sachung, Gerangzing, Kampaa, Salang, Lada Circle, Pego, Dongko. Alternate names: Miji, Dammai.  Dialects: Generally considered to be in the Mirish subgroup.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Sakechep

[sch] 20,000 to 30,000 (2003). Assam, Karbi Anglong, N. Cachar Hills, Cachar Hills districts; Nagaland, Kohima District, Khelma village; Meghalaya, Jaintia Hills District, Saithsma, Rumphung, Mongor villages; Tripura. Alternate names: Sankechep.  Dialects: Khelma, Thangkachep, Sakechep. Dialects are intelligible and are maybe just alternate names for Sakechep depending on the region. Closely related to Biete, Hrangkhol.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Samvedi

[smv]  Maharashtra. Dialects: A more divergent dialect of, or closely related language to Konkani. Shares many features with Gujarati.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Sansi

[ssi] 60,000 in India (2002 Gusain). Population total all countries: 76,200. Punjab; Rajasthan; Haryana; Delhi; Jammu and Kashmir; Madhya Pradesh; Karnataka; Uttar Pradesh. Also spoken in Pakistan. Alternate names: Bhilki, Sansiboli.  Dialects: Intermediate between Punjabi and Hindustani. They sometimes identify themselves as Marwari. Lexical similarity 71% with Urdu, 83% with the Sochi language variety. Numerous phonological and morphological borrowings from Punjabi, Hindi, and Gujarati (Gusain).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Sansi 
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Sanskrit

[san] 6,106 (1981 census).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 
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Santali

[sat] 5,959,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 6,156,260. Assam; Bihar; Orissa; Tripura; West Bengal; Mizoram. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal. Alternate names: Hor, Har, Satar, Santhali, Sandal, Sangtal, Santal, Sentali, Samtali, Santhiali, Sonthal.  Dialects: Karmali (Khole), Kamari-Santali, Lohari-Santali, Manjhi, Paharia, Mahali (Mahili, Mahli). Close to Ho and Mundari.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali 
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Saurashtra

[saz] 310,000 (1997). The districts mentioned each have communities of at least 5,000 speakers. Tamil Nadu, Madurai, Thanjavur, Dindugul Quaid-E. Milleth, Ramanathapuram, Chengai-Annai, Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, North Arcot districts, Madras, Deccan, Madurai, Thanjavur, Salem cities; Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Saurashtri, Sourashtra, Sowrashtra, Patnuli.  Dialects: Southern Saurashtra, Northern Saurashtra. Indo-Aryan elements in its deep structure reveal Gujarati relationship. Has borrowed some structure from Dravidian, lexicon from Telugu and Tamil. An Indo-European island surrounded by Dravidian languages. The 3 main populations in Salem, Thanjavur, and Madurai cities had between 67% and 97% inherent intelligibility. All varieties sampled had 77% to 96% lexical similarity. The 3 main populations in Salem, Thanjavur, and Madurai cities had 84% to 96%. Southern dialects have 83% or higher lexical similarity with Thanjavur dialect.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Sauria Paharia

[mjt] 110,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 122,000. Jharkhand, northern part of former Santhal Pargana District, Rajmahal hills proper, mainly in Sahibganj and Godda districts, Litipara Block of Pakaur District; West Bengal, Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Malto, Malti, Maltu, Maler, Sawriya Malto, Malatri.  Dialects: Sahibganj, Godda, Hiranpur, Litipara (Chatgam). Inherent intelligibility with Kumarbhag Paharis is inadequate. Related to Kurux. Lexical similarity 80% with Kumarbhag Paharia.  Classification: Dravidian, Northern 
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Savara

[svr] 20,179 (2000 WCD). Andhra Pradesh; Orissa. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu 
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Sentinel

[std] 101 (2000 WCD). Southeastern Andaman Islands, Sentinel Island. Alternate names: Sentinelese.  Dialects: Similar to Önge.  Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese 
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Seraiki

[skr] 20,000 in India (2000). Punjab; Maharashtra; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh; Rajasthan; Delhi; Gujarat. Alternate names: Saraiki, Multani, Mutani, Siraiki, Southern Panjabi, Reasati, Riasati, Bahawalpuri.  Dialects: Jafri, Siraiki Hindki, Thali, Jatki, Bahawalpuri (Bhawalpuri, Riasati, Reasati).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda 
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Shekhawati

[swv] 3,000,000 (2002 Gusain). Rajasthan, Sikar, Jhunjhunun, Churu districts. Alternate names: Shekhawati-Marwari.  Dialects: Jhunjhunu-Churu, Sikar. 67% comprehension of Marwari. Lexical similarity 74% to 77% between dialects; 51% to 68% with Marwari, 58% to 80% with Merwari, 45% to 69% with Godwari, 57% to 66% with Mewari, 66% to 73% with Dhundari, 58% to 66% with Harauti, 57% to 70% with Mewati, 69% to 76% with Bagri, 61% to 73% with Haryanvi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Shendu

[shl]  Mizoram. Alternate names: Khyen, Khieng, Shandu, Sandu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Sho 
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Sherdukpen

[sdp] 3,100 (2001). Assam; Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng District, south of the Bomdi La Range, in the valleys of the Tengapani River, mainly Rupa (Kupa), Shargang (Shergaon), Jigang (Jigaon), and Thungrao villages. Alternate names: Ngnok.  Dialects: Bugun (Khoa), Lishpa, and Butpa might be related, but are little-known languages (Sun Tianshin Jackson 1993). Sulung may also be related.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Unclassified 
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Sherpa

[xsr] 20,000 in India (1997). West Bengal, Darjeeling District; Sikkim; Arunachal Pradesh. Alternate names: Sharpa, Sharpa Bhotia, Xiaerba, Serwa.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
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Shina

[scl] 21,000 in India (1997). Northern Kashmir, Dras Valley and Gurais area in Kishenganga Valley near the cease fire line. Alternate names: Shinaki, Sina.  Dialects: Drasi, Gurezi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina 
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Sholaga

[sle] 24,000 (1984 GR). Karnataka, Mysore District, Biligiri Rangana Hills; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: Kadu Sholigar, Sholiga, Sholigar, Solaga, Soliga, Soligar, Solanayakkans, Sholanayika.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 65% with Kannada.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Shom Peng

[sii] 223 (1981 census). Nicobar Islands, interior Great Nicobar Island. Alternate names: Shom Pen, Shompeng, Shompen, Shobang.  Dialects: Distinct from other Nicobarese languages.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Shom Peng 
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Shumcho

[scu] 2,174 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Kanam, Labrang, Spilo, Shyaso, Taling, and Rushkaling villages of Puh Tahsil. Alternate names: Sumchu, Sumtsu, Shumcu, Thebor, Thebör Skadd, Thebarskad, Central Kinnauri, Sumcho.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Jangshung, 67% with Sunam, 45% with Lower Kinnauri, 43% with Chitkuli.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Sikkimese

[sip] 28,600 (1996). Sikkim, all districts; West Bengal, Darjeeling. Possibly also in Tibet. Alternate names: Sikkim Bhotia, Sikkim Bhutia, Dandzongka, Danjongka, Danyouka, Denjong, Denjongkha, Denjongpa, Denjonke, Denjonka, Lachengpa, Lachungpa, Sikami.  Dialects: Partially intelligible with Dzongkha of Bhutan. Lexical similarity 65% with Dzongkha of Bhutan, 42% with Tebetan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
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Simte

[smt] 7,150 (2001 census). Southwest Manipur, Churachandpur District, Mingjang, Tubuong, Simveng, New Bazar, Thanlon, Leikangpai, Zouthang, Shumtuk, Monjon, Pamjal, Sasinoujang, Tallian, Dumsao, Khungung, Lungthul, Singhat, Moijin, Maokot, Suangdai, Suangpuhmun. Dialects: Related to Thado and Zome. Singh (1994) says this is an alternate name for Paite.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Sindhi

[snd] 2,812,000 in India (1997). Gujarat; Maharashtra; Rajasthan; Andhra Pradesh; Bihar; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; Orissa; Tamil Nadu; Uttar Pradesh. Dialects: Bhatia, Jadeji, Kayasthi, Lari, Lasi, Thareli, Thari, Viccholi, Visholi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi 
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Singpho

[sgp] 3,000 (1997 R. Breton). Assam, Tinsukia District, Margherita Subdivision; Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit, and Changlang districts. Alternate names: Sing-Fo, Kachin, Jingphaw.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 50% with Jingpho of Myanmar.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho 
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Sirmauri

[srx] 25,000 (1997). Himachal Pradesh, Shimla (Simla) and Solan districts. Alternate names: Sirmouri, Sirmuri.  Dialects: Giripari, Dharthi. May be a dialect of Mahasu Pahari. Dharthi dialect more influenced by Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Sora

[srb] 288,000 (1997). South Orissa, mainly in the Ganjam District, also in the Koraput and Phulbani districts; Andhra Pradesh, Srikakulam District; Madhya Pradesh; Bihar; Tamil Nadu; West Bengal; the Plains Division of Assam. Alternate names: Saora, Saonras, Shabari, Sabar, Saura, Savara, Sawaria, Swara, Sabara.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray 
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Spiti Bhoti

[spt] 10,000 (2000). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul-Spiti District, Spiti subdistrict. Alternate names: Piti Bhoti.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Ladakhi, intelligible only with difficulty with Stod Bhoti. All areas of Spiti understand each other. Lexical similarity 41% with Lhasa Tibetan, 57% with Ladakhi (Leh), 57% with Stod Bhoti from Darcha.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Stod Bhoti

[sbu] 2,500 (1996). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul Region, Stod, Khoksar, and upper Mayar valleys. Alternate names: Stod, Tod, Tod-Kad, Stod-Kad, Lahul Bhoti.  Dialects: Stod (Kolong), Khoksar (Khoksar Bhoti), Mayar (Mayar Bhoti, Mayari). 85% intelligibility of Stod Bhoti by Khoksar, 75% by Mayar, 62% of Khoksar by Mayar, 95% of Khoksar by Stod Bhoti. Lexical similarity 74% with Spiti.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Sulung

[suv] 5,443 (1991 census). Arunachal Pradesh, East Kameng and Lower Subansiri districts, along the Par River, 53 villages. Alternate names: Puroik.  Dialects: Bugun. A divergent language which some suggest is not Sino-Tibetan but possibly Austro-Asiatic. Chowdhury says intelligible with Bugun.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Sunam

[ssk] 558 (1998). Himachal pradesh, Kinnaur District, Sunam village in Puh Tahsil. Alternate names: Sungam, Sungnam, Thebor, Thebör Skadd, Thebarshad, Central Kinnauri, Sangnaur.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 67% with Shumcho, 65% with Jangshung, 38% with Lower Kinnauri and Chitkuli Kinnauri.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Surajpuri

[sjp] 273,000 (1997). Bihar. Alternate names: Suraji, Choupal, Chaupal.  Dialects: May be a dialect of Maithili.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Sylheti

[syl] 3,000,000 in India (2003). South Assam: Surma Valley Region; Karimgani, Karimganj, Cachar, Hailakandi districts; Meghalaya, (Shillong, Jawai); Tripura, (Agartala); Nagaland, (Dimapur); Delhi, Calcutta, Hyderabad, Bombay, other cities. Alternate names: Sylhetti, Sileti, Siloti, Syloti, Syloty, Srihattia, Bengali of Cachar, Sylheti Bangla, Sylheti Bengali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Tamang, Eastern

[taj] 14,000 in India (1997). West Bengal, Darjeeling; Sikkim, concentrated in lower Teesta valley and Rangit valley; Arunachal Pradesh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Tamil

[tam] 61,527,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 66,020,200. Tamil Nadu and neighboring states. Also spoken in Bahrain, Fiji, Germany, Malaysia (Peninsular), Mauritius, Netherlands, Qatar, Réunion, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom. Alternate names: Tamalsan, Tambul, Tamili, Tamal, Damulian.  Dialects: Adi Dravida, Aiyar, Aiyangar, Arava, Burgandi, Kongar, Madrasi, Pattapu Bhasha, Tamil, Sri Lanka Tamil, Malaya Tamil, Burma Tamil, South Africa Tamil, Tigalu, Harijan, Sanketi, Hebbar, Mandyam Brahmin, Secunderabad Brahmin. Kasuva is a jungle group dialect and may not be intelligible with Tamil. Burgandi speakers are nomadic. Aiyar and Aiyangar are Brahmin dialects.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Telugu

[tel] 69,634,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 69,688,278. Andhra Pradesh and neighboring states. Also spoken in Bahrain, Fiji, Malaysia, Mauritius, Singapore, United Arab Emirates. Alternate names: Telegu, Andhra, Gentoo, Tailangi, Telangire, Telgi, Tengu, Terangi, Tolangan.  Dialects: Berad, Dasari, Dommara, Golari, Kamathi, Komtao, Konda-Reddi, Salewari, Telangana, Telugu, Vadaga, Srikakula, Vishakhapatnam, East Godaveri, Rayalseema, Nellore, Guntur, Vadari, Yanadi (Yenadi).  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu 
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Teressa

[tef] 2,767 (1999 Hackworth). Nicobar Islands, Teressa and Bompoka islands. Alternate names: Taih-Long.  Dialects: Bompoka (Bompaka, Pauhut).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa 
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Tharu, Dangaura

[thl] 31,000 in India (1981 census). Uttar Pradesh, along the border in Nighasan tahsil of Kheri District and Tulsipur tahsil of Gonda District, also Bahraich District. Alternate names: Chaudary, Chaudhuri, Chaudhari, Dang, Dangora, Dangura, Dangali, Dangha.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified 
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Tharu, Kochila

[thq]   Alternate names: Saptari.  Dialects: Morangia.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Tharu, Rana

[thr] 64,000 in India (1981 census). Border with Nepal, Uttar Pradesh: near Nighasan Tahsil of Kheri District and Pilibhit District; Uttaranchal: Khatima, Sitargani, Kiccha, and Haldwani tahsils of Nainital District. Alternate names: Rana Thakur.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Thulung

[tdh] 3,313 in India (1961 census). Sikkim; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: Thulunge Rai.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Tibetan

[bod] 124,280 in India (1994). Tibet border, Himachal Pradesh; Uttaranchal; Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Delhi; Sikkim. The Darjeeling-Kalimpong area of West Bengal has been heavily settled by Tibetans since at least 1900. Alternate names: Central Tibetan, Bhotia, Pohbetian, Tebilian, Tibate, Bod Skad, Poke, Phoke.  Dialects: Aba (Batang), Dartsemdo (Tatsienlu), Dru, Gtsang, Hanniu, Jad (Dzad), Kongbo, Marchha, Nganshuenkuan (Anshuenkuan Nyarong), Panakha-Panags, Paurong, Takpa (Dwags).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Tinani

[lbf] 2,000 in India (1996). Population total all countries: 2,450 to 3,600. Himachal Pradesh, Lahul and Spiti Subdivision, lower Chandra Valley (Tinan or Rangloi Valley). Gondhla is the main village. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Lahauli, Lahouli, Rangloi, Tinan Lahuli, Lahuli, Teenan, Gondla, Gondhla.  Dialects: Close to Pattani. Lexical similarity 63% to 56% with Chamba Lahuli (Pattani), 32% to 37% with Bunan, 21% with the Spiti and Stod varieties of central Tibetan, 62% with Tandi village, 34% with Shumcho, 32% with Jangshung, 31% with Kanauri and Sunam, 13% with Lhasa Tibetan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Tiwa

[lax] 23,000 (1997). Assam, Nowgong, Karbi Anglong, Kamrup, Sibsagar, Lakhimpur districts; Meghalaya, Khasi Hills District. Alternate names: Dowyan, Lalung.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Toda

[tcx] 600 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,413 (2000 WCD). Orissa; Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Hills, Kunda hills. Alternate names: Todi, Tuda.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota 
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Toto

[txo] 20,000 (1994 King). West Bengal, Subhapara, Dhunchipara, Panchayatpara hillocks on the Indo-Bhutan border. Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Dhimal of Nepal. Low lexical similarity with Dhimal.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Dhimal 
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Tshangla

[tsj]  Western Arunachal Pradesh, Kameng District, in and around Dirang, Bishing, and several other villages; West Siang District, former Padma-bkod Region, Tuting, Mechuka circles, Mechuka, Opu, Bona, Galling, Korfu, Dorgling Halung, Tuting villages. Alternate names: Tsangla, Sangla, Cangluo Menba, Memba, Menba, Monba, Monpa, Motuo, Central Monpa.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Bodish, Tshangla 
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Tukpa

[tpq] 723 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Nesang, Charang, and Kunnu villages. Alternate names: Nesang.  Dialects: Related to Bhoti Kinnauri, Chitkuli Kinnauri, Kanashi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Tulu

[tcy] 1,949,000 (1997). 636,123 monolinguals (1981). Andhra Pradesh; Kerala, Kasargod District; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra; Karnataka, South Kanara (Dakshina Kannada) and Udipi districts; Meghalaya. Alternate names: Tal, Tallu, Thalu, Tilu, Tuluva Bhasa, Tullu, Thulu.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu 
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Turi

[trd] 6,054 (2000 WCD). Ethnic population: 150,000 (1981 census). Jharkhand, Ranchi, Gumla, Lohardaga districts, Chotanagpur area; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh District; Orissa, Sambalpur and Sundargarh districts; West Bengal, Birbhum, Nadia, Murshidabad, Bankura districts. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali 
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Ullatan

[ull] 14,846 (1991 census). Kerala, Palakkad, Trichur, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Idukki, Koliam, Pathanamthitta, Alleppey, Trivandrum districts. Alternate names: Katan, Kattalan, Kochuvelan, Ulladan.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified 
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Urali

[url] 5,843 (2003). Kerala, Idukki District, Upputhara, Kanchiyar, Vannappuram, Velliyamattom, Ayyappankovil panchayats. Alternate names: Oorazhi, Uraly, Urli.  Dialects: A distinct speech variety, sharing features with Tamil, Irula, and Kannada (Mohan Lal 1991). Lexical similarity 60% with Malayalam, 54% with Tamil.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada 
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Urdu

[urd] 48,062,000 in India (1997). Jammu and Kashmir and by Muslims in many parts of India; Dakhini dialect spoken around Hyderabad and in Maharashtra. Alternate names: Islami, Undri, Urudu.  Dialects: Dakhini (Dakani, Deccan, Desia, Mirgan), Pinjari, Rekhta (Rekhti).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani 
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Vaagri Booli

[vaa] 10,000 (1970 Varma). Tamil Nadu, Arcot District. Alternate names: Narakureavar, Narikkorava, Kuruvikkaran, Karikkorava, Hakkipikkaru, Haki Piki, Guvvalollu, Shikarijanam, Rattiyan, Marattiyan, Wogri Boli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Vaiphei

[vap] 27,791 in Manipur (2001 census). Assam; south Manipur: Churachandpur District, 30+ villages; Meghalaya; Tripura. Alternate names: Bhaipei, Vaipei, Veiphei.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Varhadi-Nagpuri

[vah] 463 (1961 census). Population includes 186 Dahngari, 271 Kumbhari, 6 Warhadi. Maharashtra, Amravati, Buldana, Akola districts; Madhya Pradesh, Chhindwara and Balaghat districts; Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad and Nizamabad districts. Alternate names: Madhya Pradesh Marathi, Berari, Berar Marathi, Dhanagari, Kumbhari.  Dialects: Brahmani, Kunbi, Raipur, Jhadpi, Govari, Kosti (Rangari), Kunban (Kohli), Mahari (Dhedi). Regarded by some as a dialect of Marathi. More distinct dialects or languages are Marheti, Natakani, Katia (Katiyai).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified 
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Varli

[vav] 600,000 (2003). Maharashtra, northern Thane District, especially Dahanu and Talasari taluks, and some in Nasik and Dhule districts; Gujarat, Valsad District, especially Dharampur taluk; Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Davari dialect in far north Thane District and southern Gujarat; Nihiri elsewhere. Alternate names: Warli.  Dialects: Davari, Western Nihiri, Eastern Nihiri. Some classify this as a dialect of Gujarati or Bhili. Lexical similarity 61% to 93% among dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Vasavi

[vas] 900,000 (1997 BSI). Maharashtra, small villages and hamlets around the Tapti River; Gujarat, Surat and Bharuch districts, north of the Tapti River in the southern areas of Akkalkuwa and Akrani tahsils on a narrow belt of land between the Satpudas and the Tapti banks; some in the Satpudas; south of the Tapti in the central and northern Nandurbar and Nawapur tahsils. Alternate names: Vasave, Vasava, Vasava Bhil.  Dialects: Dehvali, Ambodi (Ambodia), Dogri (Dungri, Dhogri), Khatalia, Kotni. Not intelligible with Pauri or Bhili. 77% to 93% intelligibility between Dogri, Khatali, Dehwali, Dubli, and Kotni varieties.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Vishavan

[vis] 150 (Shashi 1994). Kerala, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Trichur districts, Parana and Perumuzhi on Idamala River, Idyara Range, Moovatupuzha Taluk; groups on Chalakudi River near Ittyani. Alternate names: Malankudi, Malarkuti.  Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Waddar

[wbq] 1,930,000 (2003 IMA). Ethnic population: Population of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka is 3.2 million (IMA 2003). Andhra Pradesh; Karnataka; Maharashtra, Jalgaon District. Alternate names: Od, Orh, Vadari, Vadda Beldar, Werders, Wodde.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu 
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Wagdi

[wbr] 1,621,000 (1997). Rajasthan, southern Udaipur, Dungarpur and Banswara districts; Gujarat, Sabarkantha and Panchmahals; Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. Alternate names: Wagadi, Vagdi, Vagadi, Vagari, Vageri, Vaged, Vagi, Wagari, Waghari, Wagri, Wagholi, Mina Bhil, Bhili, Bhilodi.  Dialects: Kherwara, Sagwara, Adivasi Wagdi. Intelligibility among dialects is above 95%. Wagdi Banswara highly intelligible to Bhilodi of Gujarat. Wagdi highly intelligible to Patelia of Gujarat. Lexical similarity 84% with Patelia dialects; 75% to 80% with Marwari dialects; 79% to 93% with Adiwasi Girasia dialects; 79% to 87% with Rajput Girasia dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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War

[aml] 12,000 in India (2000 SIL). Meghalaya, Jaintia Hills, in and around Amlarem Block. Alternate names: Amwi.  Dialects: War-Jaintia (Amwi), War-Khasi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian 
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Yakha

[ybh] 1,000 in India (2002). Among British Gurkhas in Sikkim. Alternate names: Yakkha, Yakkhaba.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Yerukula

[yeu] 300,000 (1997). Andhra Pradesh, Rayalseema, Telengana and Andhra regions; Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri, Coimbatore, Periyar, Salem, Chengai Anna; Karnataka; Kerala; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Yerukala, Yarukula, Yerkula, Yerukla, Erukala, Korava, Yerukala-Korava, Yerukula-Bhasha, Eruku Bhasha, Korchi, Kurutha, Kurru Bhasha.  Dialects: Parikala, Sankara-Yerukala. Close to Ravula and Irula. Lexical similarity among varieties ranges from 53% to 81%, with Irula from 33% to 38%, with Ravula from 28% to 45%, with Tamil from 27% to 45%.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Zakhring

[zkr] 300 (2002). Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit District, hilly terrain and banks of the Lohit River in the Walong and Kibithoo area. Alternate names: Charumba, Meyor, Zaiwa.  Dialects: Close to Tibetan (Singh) and Miju-Mishmi. Not related to Zaiwa in Yunnan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Zangskari

[zau] 12,006 (2000 WCD). Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh district, Zanskar tahsil, south of Leh in the Zaskar Mountains, between Himalayas and Indus River Valley. Possibly Tibet. Alternate names: Zanskari, Zaskari.  Dialects: Closer to Changthang than to Ladakhi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western 
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Zome

[zom] 9,112 in Manipur (2001 census). Manipur, Chandel, Singngat subdivision and Sungnu area; Churachandpur districts; Assam. Alternate names: Zorni, Zomi, Zoli, Zo, Zou.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Zyphe

[zyp] 3,000 in India (2000). Mizoram, Lakher District. Alternate names: Zophei, Zoptei, Vawngtu.  Dialects: Lower Zyphe, Upper Zyphe.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Extinct languages

Ahom

[aho] Extinct. Assam. Alternate names: Tai Ahom.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Aka-Bea

[abj] Extinct. Andaman Islands, coasts of South Andaman Island except northeast coast, and north and east interiors; coastal Rutland Island except south coast; small islands southeast of Rutland; and Labyrinth Islands. Alternate names: Bea, Beada, Biada, Aka-Beada, Bojigniji, Bogijiab, Bojigyab.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central 
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Aka-Bo

[akm] Extinct. Andaman Islands, east central coast of North Andaman Island, and North Reef Island. Alternate names: Bo, Ba.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern 
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Aka-Cari

[aci] Extinct. Andaman Islands, north coast of North Andaman Island, Landfall Island, and other nearby small islands. Alternate names: Cari, Chariar.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern 
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Aka-Jeru

[akj] Extinct. Andaman Islands, interior and south North Andaman Island, and Sound Island. Alternate names: Jeru, Yerawa.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern 
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Aka-Kede

[akx] Extinct. Andaman Islands, central and north central Middle Andaman Island. Alternate names: Kede.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central 
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Aka-Kol

[aky] Extinct. Andaman Islands, southeast Middle Andaman Island. Alternate names: Kol.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central 
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Aka-Kora

[ack] Extinct. Andaman Islands, northeast and north central coasts of North Andaman Island, and Smith Island. Alternate names: Kora.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern 
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Akar-Bale

[acl] Extinct. Andaman Islands, Ritchie's Archipelago, Havelock Island, Neill Island. Alternate names: Bale, Balwa.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central 
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Oko-Juwoi

[okj] Extinct. Andaman Islands, west central and southwest interior Middle Andaman Island. Alternate names: Oku-Juwoi, Juwoi, Junoi.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central 
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Pali

[pli] Extinct. Also spoken in Myanmar, Sri Lanka. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Rangkas

[rgk] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,014 in India, 1,421 all countries (2000). Uttaranchal, Pithoragarh District, Johar Valley, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, facing the Nepal border along the Mahakali Valley. Alternate names: Johari, Saukiya Khun, Saukas, Shaukas, Chyanam, Kyonam, Canpa.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora 
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Turung

[try] Extinct. Assam, Golaghat District, Titabar; Karbi Anglong. Alternate names: Tai Turung, Tairong, Tailung.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, East Central, Northwest 
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