Archived 15th edition
Ethnologue.com home
Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Europe > France > Provençal

Provençal

A language of France

ISO 639-3: prv

Population 250,000 in France (1990 P. Blanchet). Population total all countries: 354,500.
Region Southeastern France, province of Provence, south of Dauphiné, region of Nimes in Languedoc. Also spoken in Italy, Monaco.
Alternate names   Prouvençau, Mistralien
Dialects Transalpin, Niçard (Niçois), Maritime Provençal (Marseillais, Toulonnais, Varois), Gavot (Alpin, Valeien, Gapian, Forcalquieren), Rhodanien (Nimois), Dauphinois (Dromois). Gascon, Languedocien, and Limousin are structurally separate languages (F. Agard). Provençal and Languedocien (Occitan) are separate languages (P. Blanchet 1990). No Provençal variety is universally accepted as the standard literary form. Niçard and Northern Gavot (Valeien and Gapian) are more difficult for other dialect speakers to understand.
Classification Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc
Language use 800,000 with some knowledge. There is regional pride and increasing status as a literary language. Strong demand for teaching in school and books in Provençal. Speakers are older adults. Attitudes are strong and differ about how different the Oc varieties are from each other. The Nobel Prize laureate Frederic Mistal wrote in Provençal. Through increased contact in army and school, most speakers are actively bilingual in French. Literary French is sometimes difficult for speakers with less school education. Regional French has a lot of Provençal influence.
Language development Bible portions: 1824–1975.

Also spoken in:

Italy

Language name   Provençal
Population 100,000 in Italy (1990 P. Blanchet).
Region Upper valleys of the Italian Piedmont (Val Mairo, Val Varacho, Val d'Esturo, Entraigas, Limoun, Vinai, Pignerol, Sestriero), Guardia Piemontese in Calabria.
Alternate names   Provenzale
Dialects Transalpin.
Language use All ages. Speakers also use Piemontese or Italian.
   

Monaco

Language name   Provençal
Population 4,500 in Monaco (1988).
Dialects Niçard (Niçois).
Comments Speakers come from Nice and Cannes.