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Languages of Indonesia (Sulawesi)

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Indonesia (Sulawesi). 14,111,444 (2000 census). 6 provinces. Information mainly from J. Anceaux 1978; B. H. Bhurhanuddin 1979; R. Blust 1991; Donohue 2004; T. Friberg 1987; T. Friberg and T. Laskowske 1989; C. and B. Grimes 1987; N. Himmelmann 2001; S. Kaseng 1979, 1983; M. Martens 1989; D. Mead 1998, 1999, 2003; S. Merrifield and M. Salea 1996; Noorduyn 1991a; T. Sebeok 1971; J. Sneddon 1983, 1989, 1993; R. van den Berg 1988, 1996. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia (Sulawesi) is 114. Of those, all are living languages.
Andio

[bzb] 1,700 (1991 SIL). Central Sulawesi, Banggai District, Lamala subdistrict, east peninsula, Taugi and Tangeban villages. Alternate names: Andio’o, Imbao’o, Masama.  Dialects: Related to Balantak [blz], Saluan [loe]. Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobongko [bgb], 62% with Coastal Saluan, 66% with Balantak.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western 
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Aralle-Tabulahan

[atq] 12,000 (1984 SIL). West Sulawesi, Mambi subdistrict, between Mandar and Kalumpang. Dialects: Aralle, Tabulahan, Mambi. Aralle has 84%–89% lexical similarity with other dialects listed, 75%–80% with Bambam [ptu], Pannei [pnc], Ulumandak [ulm] dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu 
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Bada

[bhz] 10,000 (1991 SIL). South central portion of central Sulawesi, Lore Selatan subdistrict, 14 villages; Pamona Selatan subdistrict, 2 mixed villages; Poso Pesisir subdistrict, 4 mixed villages; Parigi subdistrict, some in Lemusa village; Ampibabo subdistrict. Ako in northern Mamuju District, Pasangkayu subdistrict. 23 villages or parts of villages. Alternate names: Bada’, Tobada’.  Dialects: Bada, Ako. Lexical similarity: 85% between Bada and Behoa [bep], 91% between Behoa and Napu [npy], 80% between Bada and Napu [npy]. The three are geographically, politically, culturally separate.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic 
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Bahonsuai

[bsu] 200 (1991 SIL). Central Sulawesi, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, Bahonsuai village on the east coast. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Tomadino [tdi], 68% with Mori Atas [mzq], Mori Bawah [xmz], and Padoe [pdo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast 
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Bajau, Indonesian

[bdl] 150,000 (2007 SIL). 5,000 or more in North Maluku (Grimes 1982), 8,000 to 10,000 in South Sulawesi (Grimes 1987), 7,000 in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo, 36,000 in Central Sulawesi, 40,000 in Southeast Sulawesi (Mead and Lee 2007), and several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (Wurm and Hattori 1981, Verhiejen 1986). North Maluku on Bacan, Obi, Kayoa and Sula Islands; South Sulawesi, Selayar, Bone, and Sinjai districts; Gorontalo Province, Popayato and Tilamuta subdistricts; North Sulawesi, Wori, Tumpaan and Belang subdistricts. Widespread throughout Central and Southeast Sulawesi and islands of the East Sunda Sea. Alternate names: Badjaw, Badjo, Bajao, Bajo, Bayo, Gaj, Luaan, Lutaos, Lutayaos, Orang Laut, Sama, Turije’ne’.  Dialects: Jampea, Same’, Matalaang, Sulamu, Kajoa, Roti, Jaya Bakti, Poso, Togian 1, Togian 2, Wallace.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw 
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Balaesang

[bls] 3,200 (Himmelmann 2001). Central Sulawesi, Balaesang subdistrict, Manimbayu Peninsula. 5 villages. Alternate names: Balaesan, Balaisang, Pajo.  Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern 
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Balantak

[blz] 30,000 (2000 SIL). 3,000 are monolingual. East central Sulawesi, Banggai District, eastern peninsula, Luwuk, Balantak, Tinangkung, and Lamala subdistricts. 49 villages, or parts of villages. Alternate names: Kosian.  Dialects: Related to Andio [bzb], Coastal Saluan [loe]. Lexical similarity: 66% with Andio, 51% with Coastal Saluan, 39% with Bobongko [bgb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Eastern 
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Bambam

[ptu] 22,000 (1988 SIL). West Sulawesi, west Polmas District, Mambi subdistrict, Maloso and Mapilli rivers watershed, into Majene and Mamuju districts. Alternate names: Pitu-Ulunna-Salu.  Dialects: Bambam Hulu, Salu Mokanam, Bumal, Mehalaan, Pattae’, Matangnga, Issilita’, Pakkau. Complex dialect chain. Lexical similarity: 83%–94% with Bumal; 85%–80% with dialects of Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], Pannei [pnc], and Ulumanda [ulm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu 
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Banggai

[bgz] 125,000 (2000). Central Sulawesi, off eastern peninsula, Banggai Islands. 157 villages, or parts of villages. Dialects: East Banggai, West Banggai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Eastern 
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Bantik

[bnq] 11,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Sulawesi; northern peninsula, northeast section. 11 villages around Manado. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Southern 
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Baras

[brs] 250 (1987 SIL). 50 households. South Sulawesi, Mamuju District, south Pasangkayu and north Budong-Budong subdistricts, between Lariang and Budong-Budong rivers, a few villages mainly in Desa Baras. Alternate names: Ende.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with Da’a Kaili [kzf], 85% with Inde dialect of Kaili, Da’a [kzf], 80% or more with other Kaili varieties, 64% with Uma [pkk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili 
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Batui

[zbt] 2,900 (2007). Central Sulawesi Province, Banggai Regency, Batui subdistrict, Balantang, Tolando, Sisipan, Batui villages. Alternate names: Baha.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 74% with Saluan, 60% with Ando [bzb], 54% with Bobongko [bgb], 46% with Balantak [blz], 38% with Banggai [bgz].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic 
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Behoa

[bep] 8,000 (2000 SIL). Central Sulawesi, Lore Utara subdistrict, Napu Valley. 8 villages. Alternate names: Besoa.  Dialects: Geographically, politically, culturally, and lexically distinct from Bada [bhz] and Napu [npy].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic 
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Bentong

[bnu] 25,000 (1987 SIL). South Sulawesi, northwest corner of the southern tip of the peninsula; inland parts of Maros, Bone, Pangkep, and Barru districts. Alternate names: Dentong.  Dialects: Most similar to Konzo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar 
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Bintauna

[bne] 12,000 (2004 SIL). North Sulawesi, around Bintauna. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic 
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Boano

[bzl] 2,700 (Himmelmann 2001). Central Sulawesi, Montong subdistrict, Bolano village, on the south coast. Alternate names: Bolano, Djidja.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83% with Totoli [txe].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tolitoli 
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Bobongko

[bgb] 1,500 (2001 SIL). 1,100 in Lembanato and 400 in Tumbulawa. Central Sulawesi, Togian Islands, Lembanato village; Batu Daka Island, Kilat Bay north, Tumbulawa village on northwest coast. Dialects: Related to Saluan. Different from Andio [bzb]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Coastal Saluan [loe], 44% with Andio, and 30% with Gorontalo [gor], 25%–30% with Gorontalo-Mongondow languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic 
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Bolango

[bld] 18,500 (2004 SIL). 5,000 in Bolango, 15,000 in Atinggola. North Sulawesi Province, south coast of the peninsula, Bolaang Mongondow District, around Molibagu; Gorontalo Province, north coast around Atinggola, between Kaidipang and Gorontalo. Alternate names: Bulanga, Bulanga-Uki, Diu.  Dialects: Bolango, Atinggola.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic 
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Bonerate

[bna] 9,500 (1987 SIL). South Sulawesi, Bonerate, Madu, Kalaotoa, and Karompa islands. Dialects: Bonerate, Karompa. Lexical similarity: 79%–81% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 31% with Kalao [kly], 25% with Laiyolo [lji].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate 
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Budong-Budong

[bdx] 70 (1988). Mamuju District, Budong-Budong subdistrict, Tongkou village, on Budong-Budong River. Alternate names: Tangkou, Tongkou.  Dialects: Similar to Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], Ulumandak [ulm]. Lexical similarity: 56% with Mamuju [mqx] and Seko Padang [skx], 61% with Seko Tengah [sko], 72% with Panasuan [psn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko, Panasuan 
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Bugis

[bug] 3,500,000 in Indonesia (1991 SIL). Western coast of southeast Sulawesi in Kolaka, Wundulako, Rumbia, and Poleang districts. Also in major towns of Sulawesi. Large enclaves also in other provinces of Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sumatra; coastal swamp areas such as Bulukumba, Luwu, Polewali in Polmas, Pasangkayu in Mamuju districts. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Boegineesche, Boeginezen, Bugi, Buginese, De’, Rappang Buginese, Ugi.  Dialects: Bone (Palakka, Dua Boccoe, Mare), Pangkep (Pangkajene), Camba, Sidrap (Sidenrang, Pinrang Utara, Alitta), Pasangkayu (Ugi Riawa), Sinjai (Enna, Palattae, Bulukumba), Soppeng (Kessi), Wajo, Barru (Pare-Pare, Nepo, Soppeng Riaja, Tompo, Tanete), Sawitto (Pinrang), Luwu (Luwu’, Bua Ponrang, Wara, Malangke-Ussu). Bone or Soppeng dialects are central.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis 
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Bungku

[bkz] 21,500 (1995 SIL). 100 Routa, 16,400 Bungku, 2,500 Torete, 1,000 Tulambatu, 800 Landawe, 650 Waia. Central Sulawesi, Bungku Utara, Bungku Tengah, and Bungku Selatan subdistricts, along east coast; 45 villages or parts of villages. Tulambatu in northern Southeast Sulawesi, Konawe District, Asera, Soropia, and Lasolo subdistricts, with difficult access. Alternate names: “Nahina”.  Dialects: Bungku, Routa, Tulambatu, Torete (To Rete), Landawe, Waia. Lexical similarity: 81% with Torete, Waia, Tulambatu, and Landawe dialects, 38% with Pamona dialects [pmf], 88%, with Landawe dialect, 84% with Waia dialect, 82% with Torete dialect, 74% with Wawonii [wow], 66% with Taloki [tlk], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq], 65% with Moronene [mqn], 54% with the Mori and Tolaki groups, 82% with the Routa dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast 
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Buol

[blf] 75,000 (1989). Central Sulawesi; Paleleh, Bunobogu, Bokat, Momunu, Biau, Baolan subdistricts; north coast near Gorontalo Province border. 68 villages. Alternate names: Bual, Bwo’ol, Bwool, Dia.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Totoli [txe].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic 
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Busoa

[bup] 2,300 (2000 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, southwest coast of Buton island, Batauga subdistrict, Busoa and Laompo villages. Alternate names: Bosoa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with Kambe-Kambero (probably a dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]), 70%–79% with Muna dialects, 71% with Muna [mnb], 76% with Lantoi [zka].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan 
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Campalagian

[cml] 30,000 (1986 SIL). West Sulawesi, Majene District, Polmas, south coast. Alternate names: Tallumpanuae, Tasing, Tjampalagian.  Dialects: Campalagian, Buku. Lexical similarity: 50%–58% with Mandar [mdr], 50%–62% with Bugis [bug], 55% with Bugis Bone [bug], 62% with Bugis Pangkajene [bug], Bugis Sidrap [bug].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis 
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Cia-Cia

[cia] 79,000 (2005 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, south Buton Island, Binongko Island, Batu Atas Island. Alternate names: Boetoneezen, Buton, Butonese, Butung, South Buton, Southern Butung.  Dialects: Kaesabu, Sampolawa (Mambulu-Laporo), Wabula, Masiri. Wabula dialect has further subvarieties: Wabula, Burangasi, Wali, Takimpo, Kondowa, Holimombo. Lexical similarity: 93% with Masiri dialect, 74% with Kambe-Kambero dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka], 69% with Busoa [bup], 67% with Lontoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka], 66% with Liabuku [lix], 61% with Wolio [wlo], 60% with Muna [mnb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, West Buton 
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Dakka

[dkk] 1,500 (1986 SIL). West Sulawesi, Polewali-Mamasa District, Wonomulyo subdistrict. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72%–77% with Pannei [pnc] and Bambam [ptu].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu 
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Dampelas

[dms] 10,300 (Himmelmann 2001). Central Sulawesi; Dampelas Sojol and Balaesang subdistricts. 8 villages. Alternate names: Dampal, Dampelasa, Dian.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern 
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Dondo

[dok] 13,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Central Sulawesi; Tolitoli Buol District, Tolitoli Utara, Baolan, Dondo, Galang, and Dampal Utara subdistricts on the north coast. 25 villages, or parts of villages. Dialects: Consider Dondo a separate language from Totoli [txe]. Probably separate from Tomini [txm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern 
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Duri

[mvp] 95,000 (1991 SIL). 90,000 in Enrekang District. South Sulawesi, north Enrekang District, Makassar City, elsewhere in South Sulawesi. Alternate names: Masenrempulu, Massenrempulu.  Dialects: Cakke, Kalosi.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu 
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Enrekang

[ptt] 50,000 (1991 SIL). South Sulawesi, Enrekang, and Pinrang districts. Alternate names: Endekan, Endekan Timur.  Dialects: Enrekang, Ranga, Pattinjo (Letta-Batulappa-Kassa).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu 
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Gorontalo

[gor] 900,000 (1989). Sulawesi, Gorontalo Province, north peninsula. Alternate names: Gorongtalo, Guarantala, Gunongtello, Holontalo, Hulontalo.  Dialects: East Gorontalo, Gorontalo Kota, West Gorontalo (Kwandang), Tilamuta, Limboto (Limbotto).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic 
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Kaidipang

[kzp] 25,700 (2004 SIL). North Sulawesi, north coast, both sides of Bolaangitang. Alternate names: Dio, Kaidipan, Kodipang.  Dialects: Kaidipang, Kodipang, Bolaang Itang (Bolang Itang).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic 
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Kaili, Da’a

[kzf] 35,000, increasing. Da’a and Inde. 3,000 to 5,000 Da’a and Inde are in south Sulawesi. Central Sulawesi, South Sulawesi provinces in Marawola, Dolo, Sigi-Biromaru, Palolo, Banawa subdistricts. ‘Bunggu’ used for Da’a and Inde in south Sulawesi, Mamuju District, Pasangkayu subdistrict, near Palu. Alternate names: Bunggu, Da’a.  Dialects: Da’a (Pekawa, Pekava, Pakawa), Inde. Some intelligibility with Ledo dialect of Kaili, Ledo [lew] and other Kaili varieties, but with major sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 98% between the Da’a and Inde dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili 
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Kaili, Ledo

[lew] 234,000 (Barr, Barr and Salombe 1979). 128,000 Ledo, Doi, Ado, and Edo together, 7,500 Ija and Taa together, 55,000 Rai and Raio together, 43,000 Tara (Barr, Barr and Salombe 1979). 8,000 to 10,000 are in south. Central and south Sulawesi. Alternate names: Ledo, Paloesch, Palu.  Dialects: Ledo (Palu), Doi, Ado (Pakuli), Edo, Tado (Ri Io, To ri Io, Torio, Toriu), Tara (Parigi), Rai (Sindue-Tawaili, Tawaili-Sindue), Raio (Kori), Ija (Sigi), Taa (Palolo), Ta’a (Sausu, Dolago-Sausu). Doi dialect is intelligible with Ledo, Edo; Ado next most intelligible; Tado a little less. Some intelligibility with Da’a [kzf], but major sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 80%–88% between Ledo and the Ado, Edo, Doi, and Lindu dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili 
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Kaili, Unde

[unz] 20,000 ( Barr, Barr and Salombe 1979). Central Sulawesi, Banawa, Palu and Tawaeli subdistricts; south Sulawesi, Pasangkayu subdistrict. Alternate names: Banava, Banawa.  Dialects: Lole, Ganti.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili 
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Kaimbulawa

[zka] 2,200 (2005 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Siompu Island southwest of Baubau. 2 villages. Dialects: Lontoi, Kambe-Kambero. Not a dialect of Muna [mnb] or Cia-Cia [cia]. Lexical similarity: 96% with Lontoi dialect, 75% with Busoa [bup], 64%–74% with Muna dialects, 64% with Muna, 70% with Liabuku [lix], 66% with Cia-Cia, 58% with Wolio [wlo], 45% with Kaledupa dialect of Tukang Besi North [khc].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic 
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Kalao

[kly] 500 (1988 SIL). South Sulawesi, east Kalao Island, south of Selayar Island. Alternate names: Kalaotoa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 76% with Laiyolo [lji] and Wotu [wtw].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Kalao 
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Kalumpang

[kli] 12,000 (1991 SIL). West Sulawesi, southeast Mamuju District, Kalumpang subdistrict. Alternate names: Galumpang, Ma’ki, Maki, Makki, Mangki, Mangkir.  Dialects: Karataun, Mablei, Mangki (E’da), Bone Hau (Ta’da). Small dialects not listed. Lexical similarity: 78% with Mamasa [mqj], 78% with Tae’ [rob], 74% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Between Karataun and Bone Hau dialects: average 82%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan 
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Kamaru

[kgx] 3,500 (2005 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, southeast Buton Island. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Lasalimu [llm], 67% with Wolio [wlo], 54% with Cia-Cia [cia], 51% with Pancana [pnp], 49% with Tukang Besi [khc], 45% with Muna [mnb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru 
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Kioko

[ues] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Kulisusu subdistrict, Buton Island. Dialects: Kioko, Kambowa. Possibly dialect of the Pancana [pnp] language. Lexical similarity: 82% with Kambowa dialect, 81% with Laompo dialect of Muna [mnb], 74% with Muna, 75% with Liabuku [lix] and Busoa [bup].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western 
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Kodeoha

[vko] 1,500 (1991 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, North Kolaka District, Lasusua subdistrict, Kolaka west coast. 4 villages. Alternate names: Kondeha.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Rahambuu [raz]; 70% with Tolaki [lbw], Mekongga, and Waru [wru]; 54% with the several Mori and Bungku [bkz] groups.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast 
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Konjo, Coastal

[kjc] 125,000 (1991 SIL). 50,000 Kajang, 10,000 Tiro. South Sulawesi, southeast corner, southern tip of the peninsula; parts of Sinjai, Bulukumba, and Bantaeng districts. Alternate names: Kondjo, Tiro.  Dialects: Konjo Pesisir (Ara, Bira), Tana Toa (Tana Towa, Black Konjo, Kajang, Kadjang), Bantaeng (Bonthain). Tana Toa is north end of dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 76% with Makassar [mak]. Tana Toa dialect is within 10% lexical similarity with other coastal dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar 
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Konjo, Highland

[kjk] 150,000 (1991 SIL). South Sulawesi, central mountain area, Sinjai, Bone, Gowa, Bulukumba districts. Alternate names: Konjo Pegunungan, Konyo.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Coastal Konjo [kjc].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar 
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Koroni

[xkq] 500 (1991 SIL). Central Sulawesi, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, Unsongi village on east coast south of Bungku town. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Taloki [tlk] and Kulisusu [vkl], 66% with Wawonii [wow], Bungku [bkz], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]; 65% with Moronene [mqn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu 
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Kulisusu

[vkl] 22,000 (1995 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Kulisusu and Bonegunu subdistricts, northeast corner of Buton Island. Alternate names: Kalisusu, Kolensusu, Kolinsusu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% between dialects, 77% with Taloki [lbw], 75% with Koroni [xkq], 66% with Wawonii [wow] and Bungku [bkz] group, 65% with Moronene [mqn], 54% with the Mori languages and Tolaki.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu 
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Kumbewaha

[xks] 3,400 (2005 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi Province, Buton District, Lasalimu subdistrict, southeast Buton Island, Kumbewaha and Wajah Jaya villages. Alternate names: Umbewaha.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, East Buton 
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Laiyolo

[lji] 800 (1997 SIL). 250 Laiyolo, 550 Barang-Barang. South Sulawesi, Laiyolo in villages of Lembang Mate’ne in Desa Laiyolo, and a few in Kilotepo’ and Sangkeha’. Barang-Barang village in Desa Lowa, southern tip of Selayar Island. Alternate names: Barang-Barang, Da’ang.  Dialects: Barang-Barang (Loa, Loa’, Lowa), Laiyolo (Lajolo, Layolo). Barang-Barang dialect may need separate literature. Lexical similarity: 86% between Laiyolo and Barang-Barang dialect, 76% with Kalao [kly], 65% with Buton, 53% with Wotu [wtw], 39% with Muna [mnb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Kalao 
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Lasalimu

[llm] 1,700 (2000 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Southeast Buton Island, Lasalimu subdistrict. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Kamaru [kgx], 64% with Cia-Cia [cia], 57% with Tukang Besi, 51% with Pancana [pnp], 50% with Wolio [wlo] and Muna [mnb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, East Buton 
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Lauje

[law] 44,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Central Sulawesi, Dampelas Sojol, Dondo, Tinombo, Tomini, and Ampibabo subdistricts, along Tomini Bay, Sidoan River area. Alternate names: Ampibabo-Lauje, Laudje, Tinombo.  Dialects: Ampibabo. Ampibabo dialect may be a separate language.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern 
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Lemolang

[ley] 2,000 (1995 SIL). South Sulawesi, Luwu Utara District, inland from the northeast coast, centered in Sassa and Salassa villages, scattered in Sabbang subdistrict, and possibly Baebunta. Alternate names: Baebunta, Limola.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 41% with Mori Bawah [xmz], 39% with Mori Atas [mzq], 38% with Bungku [bkz], 39% with Buton, 31% with Seko Padang [skx], 30% with Rampi [lje], 29% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 26% with Muna [mnb], 25% with Wotu [wtw], 24% with Bugis [bug].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Lemolang 
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Liabuku

[lix] 75 (2004 SIL), decreasing. Southeast Sulawesi, Bungi subdistrict, south Buton Island, part of Liabuku village north of Bau-Bau. Dialects: Quite divergent from other Muna varieties. Lexical similarity: 82% with the Burukene dialect of Muna [mnb], 72%–76% with other Muna dialects, 72% with Muna, 75% with Kioko [ues].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western 
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Lindu

[klw] 2,000 (1990 SIL). Central Sulawesi, Lindu subdistrict; Anca, Tomado, Langko villages near Lake Lindu. Alternate names: Linduan, Tado.  Dialects: Lindu is very similar to Moma [myl]; considered by some a Moma dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili 
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Lolak

[llq] 3,000 (2004 SIL). North Sulawesi, Bolaang Mongondow District, Lolak, Mongkoinit, and Motabang villages. Dialects: Structurally related to Gorontalo [gor], but with heavy lexical borrowing from Mongondow [mog]. Lexical similarity: 79% with Mongondow, 66% with Ponosakan [pns], 63% with Kaidipang [kzp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic 
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Maiwa

[wmm] 50,000 (1990 SIL). South Sulawesi, Enrekang and Sidenrang districts. Alternate names: Masenrempulu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu 
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Makasar

[mak] 1,600,000 (1989). South Sulawesi, southwest corner of the peninsula, most of Pangkep, Maros, Gowa, Bantaeng, Jeneponto, and Takalar districts. Alternate names: Goa, Macassar, Macassarese, Makassa, Makassaarsche, Makassar, Makassarese, Mangasara, Mengkasara, Taena, Tena.  Dialects: Gowa (Goa, Lakiung), Turatea (Jeneponto), Maros-Pangkep. Gowa dialect is prestigious. Dialects form a chain.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar 
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Malay, Makassar

[mfp] 1,880,000 (2000). South Sulawesi, Makassar port area. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade 
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Malay, Manado

[xmm] 850,000 (2001). North Sulawesi, Minahasa District, west coast, Manado port area. Alternate names: Manadonese Malay, Minahasan Malay.  Dialects: Most similar to North Moluccan Malay [max]. Also similar to Sri Lankan Malay [sci].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade, East Indonesian 
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Malimpung

[mli] 5,000 (1995 SIL). South Sulawesi, Pinrang District, Patampanua subdistrict, Malimpung area. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Maiwa [wmm], 70% with Enrekang [ptt].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu 
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Mamasa

[mqj] 100,000 (1991 SIL). West Sulawesi, Polmas District, Polewali subdistrict, along Mamasa River. Dialects: Northern Mamasa, Central Mamasa, Pattae’ (Southern Mamasa, Patta’ Binuang, Binuang, Tae’, Binuang-Paki-Batetanga-Anteapi). Lexical similarity: 78% with Toraja-Sa’dan [ska].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan 
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Mamuju

[mqx] 60,000 (1991 SIL). 50,000 in Mamuju dialect. West Sulawesi, Mamuju District, Mamuju, Kalukku, and Budong-Budong subdistricts on the coast. Alternate names: Mamoedjoe, Mamoedjoesch, Mamudju, Udai.  Dialects: Mamuju, Sumare-Rangas, Padang, Sinyonyoi. Mamuju dialect is prestigious.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Mamuju 
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Mandar

[mdr] 200,000 (1985). West Sulawesi, Majene and Polewali-Mamasa districts, Mamuju District, a few settlements; Pangkep District islands, and Ujung Lero near Pare-Pare. Alternate names: Andian, Mandharsche, Manjar.  Dialects: Majene, Balanipa (Napo-Tinambung), Malunda, Pamboang, Sendana (Cenrana, Tjendana). A complex dialect grouping, there may be more dialects than those listed. Balanipa and Sendana may each be more than 1 dialect. Balanipa is the prestige dialect. Mandar, Mamuju [mqx], and Bambam [ptu] are separate languages in a language chain.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Mandar 
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Moma

[myl] 5,500 (1985 SIL). Central Sulawesi, Kulawi subdistrict, primarily Kulawi and Toro town areas. Alternate names: Kulawi.  Dialects: Historically a varietyof Kaili, but strong lexical influences from Uma [ppk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili 
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Mongondow

[mog] 900,000 (1989). North Sulawesi, between Tontemboan and Gorontalo. Alternate names: Bolaang Mongondow, Minahassa, Mongondou.  Dialects: Lolayan, Dumoga, Pasi.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Mongondowic 
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Mori Atas

[mzq] 16,100 (2000). Central Sulawesi, southeast peninsula neck, Mori Atas, Lembo, and Petasia subdistricts; south Sulawesi. 25 villages or parts of villages. Alternate names: Upper Mori, West Mori.  Dialects: Aikoa. Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Bawah [xmz] and Padoe [pdo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior 
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Mori Bawah

[xmz] 16,100 (2000). Central Sulawesi, southeast peninsula neck; Petasia and Lembo subdistricts, 24 villages, or parts of villages; south Sulawesi. Alternate names: East Mori, Lower Mori, “Nahina”.  Dialects: Tambe’e, Nahina, Petasia, Soroako, Karonsie. Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Padoe [pdo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast 
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Moronene

[mqn] 37,000 (2000 D. Andersen), increasing. 5% are monolingual. 23,000 in Moronene, 14,000 in Tokotu’a. Includes about 3,500 now living in cities. Second or third generations in cities no longer speak Moronene. Southeast Sulawesi, Bombana District. Tokotu’a on Kabaena Island; Wita Ea on the mainland portion of Bombana District opposite Kabaena, with Rumbia subdialect in Rumbia subdistrict, and Poleang subdialect in Poleang, Poleang Timur, and Watubangga subdistrict of Kolaka District. Alternate names: Maronene, “Nahina”.  Dialects: Wita Ea (Rumbia, Poleang), Tokotu’a (Kabaena). Lexical similarity: 80 % of Wita Ea dialect 80% with Tokotu’a dialect; 68% with Menui dialect of Wawonii [wow], 66% with Kulisusu [vkl], 65% with Taloki [tlk], Koroni [xkq], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 64% with Bungku [bkz], and 57% with Tolaki [lbw].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, Southwest 
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Muna

[mnb] 300,000 (van den Berg 1989). 600 in Ambon (1985 SIL). Off southwest Sulawesi, Muna Island, northwest coast of Buton Island; Central Maluku, Ambon. Dialects: Standard Muna (Northern Muna), Tiworo (Eastern Muna), Gu, Lakudo, Mawasangka, Kadatua, Siompu, Katobengke, Burukene, Laompo, Kapontori. Subvarieties of Standard Muna are: Tungkuno, Kabawo, Lawa, Katobu, Tobea Besar; of Gulamas are: Gu, Mawasangka, Lakudo, Wale-Ale, Lawama, Kadatua, Lowu-Lowu, Kalia-Lia, Katobengke, Topa, Salaa, Lawela, Laompo, Burukene. Lexical similarity: 71% with Pancana [pnp], 62% with Cia-Cia [cia], 52% with Wolio [wlo], 50% with Lasalimu [llm], 47% with Tukang Besi [khc] or [bhq], 45% with Kamaru [kgx].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western 
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Napu

[npy] 6,000 (1995). Central Sulawesi, Lore Utara subdistrict, Napu Valley. 10 villages. Alternate names: Pekurehua.  Dialects: Most similar to Behoa [bep].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic 
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Padoe

[pdo] 6,000 (1991 D. Andersen). South Sulawesi, east Luwu Utara District in Nuha, Malili, Mangkutana subdistricts; Central Sulawesi, Banggai District, Mori Atas subdistrict, 2 villages, Pamona Utara subdistrict, 1 village. Alternate names: Alalao, Padoé, South Mori.  Dialects: 2 dialects. Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Mori Bawah [xmz].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior 
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Pamona

[pmf] 106,000 (Barr, Barr and Salombe 1979). Central and South Sulawesi provinces, Poso District, Poso Kota, Poso Pesisir, Parigi, Lage, Pamona Utara, Pamona Selatan, Tojo, Ulubongko, Ampana Kota, Ampanatete, Una-Una, Mori Atas, Petasia, Bungku Utara, Bungku Tengah subdistricts; 193 villages. South Sulawesi, Luwu Utara District, Mangkutana, north Wotu and Bone-Bone subdistricts. Alternate names: Bare’e, Baree, Poso.  Dialects: Pamona, Laiwonu (“Iba” ), Rapangkaka (“Aria” ), Tomoni, Tobau (Tobao, Tobalo, “Bare’e” ), Tokondindi, Topada, Taa (Wana, Topotaa). Related to Tombelele [ttp]. Laiwonu and Rapangkaka dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 76% (Taa)–90% among dialects, except for Tombelala, which has 66%–76% with other Bungku Tengah dialects, and is considered a separate language.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Pamona 
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Panasuan

[psn] 800 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 800 or more. West Sulawesi, Mamuju District, northeast of Kalumpang [kli], west of Seko area. 2 villages. Alternate names: To Pamosean, To Panasean.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Seko Tengah [sko], 63% with Seko Padang [skx], 72% with Tangkou [tkx].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko, Panasuan 
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Pancana

[pnp] 6,000 (2005 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, central Buton Island. Alternate names: “Akido” , Pantjana.  Dialects: Kapontori (“Akido” ), Kalende (Lawele), Labuandiri. Dialect names are also place names. May be more than 1 language. Lexical similarity: 71% with Muna [mnb], 57% with Cia-Cia [cia].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western 
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Pannei

[pnc] 9,000 (1986 SIL). South Sulawesi, Polewali-Mamasa District, Wonomulyo subdistrict. Alternate names: Tapango.  Dialects: Tapango, Bulo. Lexical similarity: 87%–93% between the Bulo dialect and other varieties, 75%–80% with dialects of Ulumanda’ [ulm], Bambam [ptu], Aralle-Tabulahan [atq].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu 
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Pendau

[ums] 4,500 (Quick 2003). Central Sulawesi, centered in Balaesang subdistrict, Walandano, Sibayu and other villages; about half live scattered north to the Totoli [txe], with some near Balaesang subdistrict. Alternate names: Ndaoe, Ndau, Umalasa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern 
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Ponosakan

[pns] 3,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). North Sulawesi, Belang area. Alternate names: Ponasakan.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Mongondow [mog], 66% with Lolak [llq].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Mongondowic 
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Rahambuu

[raz] 5,000 (1991 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, North Kolaka District, Pakue subdistrict, west coast north of the Kodeoha. Alternate names: Wiau, Wiaoe, “Noihe”.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 87% between dialects, 75% with Kodeoha [vko], 70% with Tolaki [lbw], Mekongga dialect of Tolaki [lbw], and Waru [wru]; 54% with Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast 
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Rampi

[lje] 8,000 (1991 SIL). 2,300 in South Sulawesi, 5,700 in Central Sulawesi. South Sulawesi, Luwu Utara District, Masamba subdistrict. 6 isolated mountain villages; Central Sulawesi, Poso, Donggala districts, Sabbang Limbong, Wotu, and Mangkutana subdistricts. 15 villages. Rato have moved elsewhere. Alternate names: Ha’uwa, Leboni, Rampi-Leboni.  Dialects: Rampi (Lambu), Rato. Leboni is prestige dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern 
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Ratahan

[rth] 30,000 (1989). Sulawesi, north peninsula, northeast section, Ratahan area to southeast coast. Alternate names: Bentenan, Pasan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Southern 
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Saluan

[loe] 74,000 (Barr, Barr and Salombe 1979). East central Sulawesi; Luwuk, Balantak, Lamala, Buko, Totikum, Kintom, Batui, Pagimana, Bunta subdistricts. 136 villages. Loinang in mountains. Alternate names: Loinang, Loindang, Mondono, “Madi”.  Dialects: Loinang (Coastal Saluan, Lingketeng), Baloa’ Kohumamahon, Kahumamahon, Luwuk, Kintom-Pagimana-Boalemo. Related to Balantak [blz], Andio [bzb]. Lexical similarity: 74% with Batui [zbt], 53% with Bobongko [bgb], 62% with Andio, 51% with Balantak.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic 
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Sangir

[sxn] 200,000 in Indonesia (1995 Indonesian Consul, Davao, Philippines). 50,000 Siau. Population total all countries: 255,000. North Sulawesi, Great Sangir Island; north Maluku. Also in Philippines. Alternate names: Sangi, Sangih, Sangihé, Sangirese.  Dialects: Siau, Manganitu, Tamako, North Tabukang (Tabukang, Tabukan), South Tabukang, Central Tabukang, Kandar, Taruna, Tagulandang (Tahulandang).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern 
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Sarudu

[sdu] 4,000 (1990 SIL). West Sulawesi, south Pasangkayu District, Mamuju subdistrict. Alternate names: Doda’.  Dialects: Nunu’, Kulu (Lariang). Lexical similarity: 75% with Uma [ppk], 80% with Benggaulu dialect of Uma [ppk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern 
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Sedoa

[tvw] 600 (Barr, Barr and Salombe 1979). East central Sulawesi, Lore Utara, and Poso Pesisir subdistricts; Sedoa and parts of Tambarona Pinedapa villages. Alternate names: Tawaelia, Tawailia, Topobaria.  Dialects: Not a dialect of nearby Napu [npy] or of the Kaili languages. Most closely related to Moma [myl] in Palolo Valley.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili 
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Seko Padang

[skx] 5,000 (1991 SIL). 2,300 in the Seko area. South Sulawesi, Luwu Utara District, Limbong subdistrict, northeast section; half resettled Central Sulawesi, Palolo Valley. Alternate names: Seko, Sua Tu Padang, Wono.  Dialects: Lodang, Hono’ (Wono).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko 
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Seko Tengah

[sko] 2,500 (1995 SIL). Northern south Sulawesi, west Limbong subdistrict along Betue River. Alternate names: Pewanean, Pewaneang, Pohoneang, Seko.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Seko Padang [skx], 67% with Panasuan [psn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko 
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Selayar

[sly] 90,000 (1983 SIL). South Sulawesi, Selayar Island. Alternate names: Salajar, Salayar, Salayer, Saleier, Siladja, Silajara.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Makassar [mak].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar 
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Suwawa

[swu] 21,000 (2004 SIL). Northeast Sulawesi, Suwawa and Pinogu area, east of Gorontalo town, Lake Limboto. Alternate names: Bonda, Bunda, Bune, Suwawa-Bunda.  Dialects: Bunda.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic 
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Tae’

[rob] 250,000 (1992 SIL), increasing. South Sulawesi, Kabupaten Luwu from Larompong District through Sabbang, and scattered pockets. Rongkong in Luwu District, southeast Limbong and Sabbang subdistricts. Also an enclave in Wasuponda, Nuha subdistrict near Soroako town. Alternate names: East Toraja, Luwu, Rongkong, Rongkong Kanandede, Sada, Sangangalla’, Tae’ Tae’, Taeq, To Rongkong, Toraja Timur, Toware.  Dialects: Rongkong, Northeast Luwu, South Luwu, Bua, Toala’, Palili’. Lexical similarity: 92% among dialects, over 86% with the northern dialects, 80% with Toraja-Sa’dan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan 
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Taje

[pee] 350 (Himmelmann 2001). Central Sulawesi, Ampibabo subdistrict, Tanampedagi village; Sindue subdistrict near Sipeso. Alternate names: Petapa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern 
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Tajio

[tdj] 12,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Central Sulawesi; Ampibabo, Tinombo, and Sindue subdistricts. 21 villages, or parts of villages. Alternate names: Adjio, Kasimbar, Ta’adjio, Tadjio.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern 
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Talaud

[tld] 60,000 (1981 UBS). North Sulawesi, Talaud Islands northeast of Sangihe Islands. Alternate names: Talaut, Talodda.  Dialects: Kaburuang, South Karakelong (Karakelong, Karakelang), Nenusa-Maingas, Essang, Arangka’a, Dapalan (Riung), Awit, Beo, Lirang (Salibabu, Salebabu).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Southern 
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Taloki

[tlk] 500 (1995 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, northwest coast Buton Island, Wakorumba subdistrict, Maligano village; possibly south Buton Island, Kapontori subdistrict, Wakalambe village. Alternate names: Taluki.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 77% with Kulisusu [vkl]; 75% with Koroni [xkq]; 66% with Wawonii [wow], Bungku [bkz], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]; 65% with Moronene [mqn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu 
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Talondo’

[tln] 400 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 400. West Sulawesi, Talondo and Pedasi villages; Mamuju District, Kalumpang subdistrict. 1 village. Dialects: May be in the Seko subgroup (Padang [skx] or Tengah [sko]). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kalumpang [kli].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan 
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Toala’

[tlz] 30,000 (1983 SIL). South Sulawesi, Luwu District from Masamba to south tip of the district. Toala’ from foothills to the divide. Palili’ on a narrow coastal strip overlapping with Bugis Luwu. Alternate names: East Toraja, Luwu’, Sada, Sangangalla’, Toala, Toala-Palili, Toraja Timur, Toware.  Dialects: Toala’, Palili’. Probably at least 4 dialects. Lexical similarity: 74% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan 
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Tolaki

[lbw] 281,000 (1991 SIL). 230,000 Konawe, 50,000 Mekongga, 650 Asera, fewer than 100 Wiwirano, 200 Laiwui. Southeast Sulawesi, Konawe, South Konawe, Kolaka and North Kolaka districts. Mekongga in Mekongga Mountains, near west edge Soroako. Alternate names: Tololaki, To’olaki, Lolaki, Laki, Tokia.  Dialects: Wiwirano (“Nohina” ), Asera (Asera Wanua, “Noie” ), Konawe (Kendari, “Tambuoki” , “Kioki” ), Mekongga (Kolaka, Bingkokak, “Norio” , “Tamboki” , “Konio” ), Laiwui. Lexical similarity: 88% between Wiwirano and Asera dialects, 84% with Konawe, 85% with Mekongga, 81% with Laiwui, 78% with Waru, 70% with Rahambuu and Kodeoha, 54% with the Mori and Bungku groups. Mekongga has 86% with Konawe, 80% with Laiwui.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast 
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Tomadino

[tdi] 600 (1991 SIL). Central Sulawesi, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, Sakita village on east coast, outskirts of Bungku town. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Bahonsuai [bsu], 68% with Mori Atas [mzq], Mori Bawah [xmz], and Padoe [pdo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior 
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Tombelala

[ttp] 1,100 (1995 SIL). Central Sulawesi, Bungku Tengah subdistrict. 4 villages. Alternate names: Mbelala, Belala, Bela, “Baria”.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 66%–76% with Pamona [pmf] varieties and 38% with Bungku [bkz].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Pamona 
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Tombulu

[tom] 60,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northeast Sulawesi, Tanawangko and Tomohon areas. Alternate names: Minahasa, Minhasa, Tombalu, Tombula, Tombulu’, Toumbulu.  Dialects: Taratara, Tomohon. Most similar to Tondano [tdn], Tonsea [txs].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North, Northeast 
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Tomini

[txm] 30,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Central Sulawesi; Moutong, Tomini, Tinombo subdistricts along Tomini Bay. 42 villages. Alternate names: Mouton, Tiadje, Tialo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern 
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Tondano

[tdn] 80,000 in Indonesia (1991 Noorduyn). Northeast Sulawesi, Tondano area and north peninsula; southeast coast, Toulour District. Also in United States. Alternate names: Tolou, Tolour, Tondanou, Toulour.  Dialects: Tondano, Kakas (Ka’kas), Remboken. Most similar to Tombulu [tom], Tonsea [txs].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North, Northeast 
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Tonsawang

[tnw] 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northeast Sulawesi, Tombatu area. Alternate names: Tombatu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan 
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Tonsea

[txs] 90,000 (1989). Northeast tip of Sulawesi. Alternate names: Tonsea’.  Dialects: Maumbi, Airmadidi, Likupang, Kauditan, Kalabat Atas.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North, Northeast 
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Tontemboan

[tnt] 150,000 (1990). Minahasa Peninsula northeast coast, Sonder to Motoling and Tompasobaru areas. Alternate names: Pakewa, Tompakewa, Tountemboan.  Dialects: Langoan, Tompaso (Makelai, Makela’i-Maotow), Sonder (Matanai, Matana’i-Maore’).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North 
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Topoiyo

[toy] 2,000 (1988 SIL). West Sulawesi, Mamuju District, Budong-Budong subdistrict inland along Budong-Budong River. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 66% with Sarudu [sdu] and Da’a [kzf], 56% with Ledo [lew], 54% with the Parigi dialect of Kaili [lew].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili 
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Toraja-Sa’dan

[sda] 500,000 (1990 UBS). South Sulawesi, Tana Toraja District, large groups in Luwu District, Makassar City; southeast Sulawesi, west coast, Kolaka and Wundulako districts. Alternate names: Sa’dan, Sa’dansche, Sadan, Sadang, South Toraja, Ta’e, Tae’, Toradja, Toraja.  Dialects: Makale (Tallulembangna), Rantepao (Kesu’), Toraja Barat (West Toraja, Mappa-Pana). Rantepao is prestige dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan 
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Totoli

[txe] 25,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Central Sulawesi, north coast, Tolitoli Utara, Galang, Baolan, Dondo, subdistricts. 29 villages, or parts of villages. Alternate names: Gage, Tolitoli, Tontoli.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tolitoli 
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Tukang Besi North

[khc] 120,000 in Indonesia (1995 SIL). 60,000 in Maluku. Tukang Besi Archipelago north islands, Kaledupa and Wanci, off Southeast Sulawesi; Singapore and Baubau City; Maluku, Bacan, Taliabu, Mongole, Buru, Sulabesi, Seram, and Ambon islands; Papua; Sumbawa. Also in Singapore. Alternate names: Buton, Wakatobi.  Dialects: Kaledupa (Kahedupa), Wanci (Wanji, Wantji, Wanje, Wangi- Wangi). Lexical similarity: 80% between Kaledupa and Wanci, and may be separate languages. 70%–75% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 48% with Lasalimu [llm], 47% with Cia-Cia [cia], 40% with Kamaru [kgx], an average of 35% with other nearby languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate 
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Tukang Besi South

[bhq] 130,000 (1995 SIL). 100,000 in Maluku. Tukang Besi archipelago south islands, Binongko and Tomea islands off Sutheast Sulawesi; Maluku, Taliabu, Mongole, Sulabesi, Buru, Seram, Ambon, and Alor islands. Bonerate dialect in Bonerate, Madu, Kalaotoa, and Karompa islands in Selayar District, South Sulawesi; numerous settlements throughout western Papua. Alternate names: Buton, Tukang-Besi, Wakatobi.  Dialects: Binongko, Bonerate, Tomea (Tomia). Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Tukang Besi North [khc], 48% with Cia-Cia [cia], 49% with Lasalimu [llm], average of 35% with other nearby languages. Lexical similarity 85% between Binongko and Tomea, 81% with Bonerate, 79% between Tomea and Bonerate.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate 
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Ulumanda’

[ulm] 30,000 (1986 SIL). 18,000 in Polmas and Majene. West Sulawesi, Majene, Mamuju, and Polewali-Mamasa districts. Alternate names: Awo-Sumakuyu, Botteng-Tappalang, Kado, Oeloemanda, Tubbi, Ulumandak, Ulunda.  Dialects: Sondoang, Tappalang, Botteng. About 6 dialects. Lexical similarity: 75%–80% with dialect of Bambam [ptu], Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], Pannei [pnc].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu 
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Uma

[ppk] 20,000 (1990 SIL), increasing. 15,000 in the region, 5,000 outside (1990 SIL), 500 in Benggaulu. Central Sulawesi, Donggala District, South Kulawi and Pipikoro subdistricts, Pipikoro, ‘banks of the Koro’ and Lariang ‘Koro’ rivers. 32 villages. Bana in South Sulawesi, Luwu Utara District, enclave within the Seko Padang [skx] dialect area; Benggaulu in South Sulawesi, south Pasangkayu District, Mamuju subdistrict; some migrated to Gimpu and Palolo valleys, Palu and Pani’i, north of Palu. Alternate names: Pipikoro, Koro, Oema.  Dialects: Winatu (Northern Uma), Tobaku (Western Uma, Dompa, Ompa), Tolee’ (Eastern Uma), Kantewu (Central Uma), Southern Uma (Aria), Benggaulu (Bingkolu), Bana. Literature exists in Kantewu dialect, but many would prefer to read their own dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern 
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Waru

[wru] 350 (1991 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Konawe District, Asera subdistrict, Mopute village by Lindu River. Alternate names: Mapute, Mopute.  Dialects: Waru, Lalomerui. Lexical similarity: 86% between the Waru and Lalomerui dialects, 79% with Tolaki [lbw] dialects and Mekongga (dial Tolaki [lbw]), 70% with Rahambuu [raz] and Kodeoha [vko], 54% with the Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast 
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Wawonii

[wow] 22,000 (1991 SIL). 14,000 Wawonii, 7,500 Menui. Southeast Sulawesi, Wawonii and Menui islands near Kendari. Alternate names: Wowonii.  Dialects: Wawonii, Menui. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bungku [bkz] and Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 66% with Taloki [lbw], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq], 65% with Moronene [mqn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast 
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Wolio

[wlo] 65,000 in Indonesia (2005 SIL). Population does not include L2 speakers and those in other provinces. Southeast Sulawesi, southwest Buton Island, Bau-Bau. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Baubau.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Cia-Cia [cia], 60% with Masiri dialect of Cia-Cia [cia] and Lantoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru 
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Wotu

[wtw] 5,000 (1987 SIL). South Sulawesi, Luwu Utara District, Wotu subdistrict, Wotu town. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 58% with Wolio [wlo], 53% with Laiyolo [lji], average 43% with South Sulawesi subgroup, 43% with Kaili-Pamona subgroup, 41% with Seko Padang [skx], 39% with Tae’ Luwu [rob], 36%–43% with Bungku-Tolaki subgroup, 37% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 33% with Bugis [bug], 31% with Rampi [lje], 25% with Lemolang [ley].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio 
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