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Languages of Thailand

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[See also SIL publications on the languages of Thailand.]
Kingdom of Thailand, Muang Thai or Prathet Thai. 63,003,000. 45,815,000 or 93.5% Daic languages, 1,037,650 or 2% Austro-Asiatic languages, 1,009,500 or 2% Austronesian languages, 533,500 or 1% Tibeto-Burman languages, 100,000 or Below 1% Hmong-Mien languages (1991 J. Matisoff). National or official language: Thai. Literacy rate: 89%. Immigrant languages: Burmese, Japanese, Kayan (180), Lao, Rohingya (100,000), Samtao, Sinhala, Tai Daeng, Tamil, Urdu, Vietnamese. Information mainly from F. Lebar, G. Hickey, J. Musgrave 1964; J. Matisoff 1991, J. Matisoff, S. Baron and J. Lowe 1996; P. Prachakij-karacak 1995; H. Purnell 1970; W. Smalley 1976; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981. Blind population: 210,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 22. The number of individual languages listed for Thailand is 74. Of those, all are living languages.
Aheu

[thm] 750 in Thailand (Ferlus 1996). Population total all countries: 2,520. Thavung in Sakon Nakhon Province, Song Daw District, 3 villages; Phon Soung live about 100 km south of the Thavung. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Phon Soung, So, Sotawueng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung 
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Akeu

[aeu] 400 in Thailand (2006). Chiang Rai Province, Mae Suay and Wiang Papao districts. Alternate names: Aki, Akui.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Lolo, Southern 
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Akha

[ahk] 56,600 (Bradley 2007). Chiangmai, Chiangrai, Maehongson provinces. 250 villages. Alternate names: Ahka, Aini, Ak’a, Aka, Ekaw, Ikaw, Ikor, Kaw, Kha Ko, Khako, Khao Kha Ko, Ko, Yani.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Southern 
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Ban Khor Sign Language

[bfk]  Northeast Thailand, a few villages. Dialects: Not related to original sign languages of Thailand, but some similarity.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Bisu

[bzi] 1,000 in Thailand (1987 E. Purnell). Southwest Chiangrai, North Lampang. 2 main villages, the largest with 100 houses. Alternate names: Mbisu, Mibisu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Southern 
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Blang

[blr] 1,200 in Thailand (1998 SIL). Chiangrai; north border area, Mae Sai; Mae Chan area; some west of Bangkok who work in gardens. Alternate names: Bulang, Hkawa, K’ala, K’wa, Kawa, Khon Doi, Kontoi, Plang, Pula, Pulang, Sen Chun, Wa.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang 
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Bru, Western

[brv] 20,000 in Thailand (1991). Mukdahan Province, Dong Luang District. Also in United States. Alternate names: B’ru, Baru, Bruu.  Dialects: Partially intelligible with Eastern Bru [bru].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Cham, Western

[cja] 4,000 in Thailand. Ban Khrue, Bangkok; possibly in refugee camps. Alternate names: Cambodian Cham, Cham, New Cham, Tjam.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Chamic, Coastal, Cham 
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Chiangmai Sign Language

[csd]  Chiang Mai. Alternate names: Chiengmai Sign Language.  Dialects: Related to sign languages in Laos and Viet Nam (Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City). Distinct from Thai Sign Language [tsq].  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Chinese, Hakka

[hak] 58,800 in Thailand (1984). Cities. Alternate names: Hakka.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Mandarin

[cmn] 5,880 in Thailand (1984). Bangkok, provincial towns, and Kra Peninsula in the south. Dialects: Ho (Haw, Cin Haw, Yunnanese, Western Mandarin, Hui, Hui-Tze, Hwei, Panghse, Pantha, Panthe, Pathee).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Min Dong

[cdo]   Alternate names: Eastern Min.  Dialects: Fuzhou (Fuchow, Foochow).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Min Nan

[nan] 1,080,000 in Thailand. 1,058,400 Chaochow (18%), 17,640 Fujian (.3%), 5,880 Hainanese (.1%) (1984). Cities. Alternate names: Min Nan, Minnan.  Dialects: Chaozhou (Chaochow, Tiuchiu, Teochow, Techu), Shantou (Swatow), Hainan, Fujian (Fukien, Hokkien).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Yue

[yue] 29,400 in Thailand (1984).  Alternate names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chong

[cog] 500 in Thailand. Trat Province, northwest of Par, Chantaburi. 4 villages. Alternate names: Chawng, Shong, Xong.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong 
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Hmong Daw

[mww] 32,400 in Thailand (2000). Petchabun, Tak, Maehongson, Chiangmai, Nan, Chiangrai, Pitsanalok, Loei, Sukhothai, Kamphaengphet, Prae, Phayao, Uttaradit, Lampang. Alternate names: Bai Miao, Chuan Miao, Hmong Der, Hmoob Dawb, Meo Kao, Pe Miao, Peh Miao, White Hmong, White Lum, White Meo, White Miao.  Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Striped Hmong, Miao Lai), Mong Leng, Petchabun Miao.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Hmong Njua

[hnj] 60,000 in Thailand (Hattaway 2000). Chiangrai, Chiangmai, Maehongson, Tak, Phayao, Phrae, Nan, Phrae, Loei, Sukhothai, Kamphaengphet, Uthai, Petchabun provinces. Alternate names: Mong Ntsua, Hmong Nzhua, Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Tak Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Qing Miao, Ching Miao, Lu Miao; Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Hmong Lens, Hmoob Leeg.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Iu Mien

[ium] 40,000 in Thailand (1999). Chiangmai, Chiangrai, Phayao, Lampang, Kampaengphet, Nan, and Sukhothai provinces. 159 villages. Alternate names: Highland Yao, Mian, Mien, Myen, Pan Yao, Yao, Yiu Mien, Youmian.  Dialects: Chiangrai.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
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Karen, Pa’o

[blk] 740 in Thailand (2000). Maehongson. Alternate names: Black Karen, Pa Oh, Pa’0, Pa-U, Taungtu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pa’o 
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Karen, Phrae Pwo

[kjt]  North, eastern provinces including Phrae Province. Alternate names: Northeastern Pwo Karen, Phrae, Prae, Pwo Phrae.  Dialects: Not intelligible with other Pwo Karen languages. Lexical similarity: 87% with Northern Pwo Karen [pww] of Thailand, 67%–71% with other Pwo Karen varieties.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pwo 
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Karen, Pwo Northern

[pww] 60,000 (1983 SIL). Northwest, Mae Sarieng town; Mae Ngaw along Salween River, 15 to 25 villages; Hot to Mae Sarieng. Alternate names: Phlong.  Dialects: Mae Ping, Omkoi (Hod), Mae Sarieng. Dialects mutually intelligible. Pwo Karen of Phrae [kjt], Kanchanaburi, and Hua Hin are not intelligible with these. Lexical similarity: 87% with Phrae Province Pwo Karen [kjt] of Thailand, 68%–73% with other Pwo Karen.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pwo 
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Karen, Pwo Western Thailand

[kjp] 50,000 in Thailand (1998). Tak (Mae Sot south), Ulthaithani, Suphanburi, Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi, Phetchaburi, and Prachuapkhirikhan (Huahin District) provinces. Kanchanaburi in north; Ratchaburi-Phetchaburi in south. Alternate names: Phlou, Southern Pwo Karen.  Dialects: Kanchanaburi Pwo Karen, Ratchaburi Pwo Karen (Phetchaburi Pwo Karen).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pwo 
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Karen, S’gaw

[ksw] 200,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol). Tak, Maehongson, Chiangmai, and Chiangrai provinces, near Myanmar border. Alternate names: Burmese Karen, Kanyaw, Karen, Paganyaw, Pwakanyaw, S’gau, S’gaw, S’gaw Kayin, White, Yang Khao.  Dialects: Panapu, Palakhi (Palachi).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Sgaw 
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Kayah, Eastern

[eky] 18,000 in Thailand (2007). 2 camps of 15,000 refugees from Myanmar. Maehongson Province, east of Salween River. Alternate names: Karennyi, Kayah, Kayay, Red Karen, “Yang Daeng”.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah 
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Kensiu

[kns] 300 in Thailand. South Yala Province, Phattaloong, Satun, Narathiwat provinces, Thai-Malay border. Some in a resettlement camp in Yala. Alternate names: Belubn, Kense, Kenseu, Kensieu, Kensiw, Maniq, Mawas, Mengo, Meni, Menik, Moni, Monik, Moniq, Mos, Ngok Pa, Orang Bukit, Orang Liar, Sakai, Tiong.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western 
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Khmer, Northern

[kxm] 1,400,000 (2006 Mahidol), decreasing. Very few monolingual. Northeast, mainly Surin, Sisaket, Buriram, Khorat provinces. Alternate names: Khmer Lue, Thailand Khmer.  Dialects: Buriram, Surin, Sisaket. Different from Central Khmer [khm]. Dialects mutually intelligible. Many local varieties.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer 
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Khmu

[kjg] 31,400 in Thailand (2000). Chiangrai, Nan, Phayao, scattered throughout Thailand. Alternate names: Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Kha Khmu, Khamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Kmhmu, Luu, Mou, Pouteng, Tmooy.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ 
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Khün

[kkh] 6,280 in Thailand (2000). Chiangrai, Chiangmai. Alternate names: Gon Shan, Hkun, Khuen, Khun Shan, Tai Khun.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Kintaq

[knq]  Kedah-Perak border area, Malaysia Thailand border into southern Yala Province. Alternate names: Kenta, Kintaq Bong, Kintk.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western 
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Korean

[kor]  Bangkok. Classification: Language isolate 
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Kuy

[kdt] 400,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol). Few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 488,900. East central, Buriram, Surin, Sisaket, Ubon, Roi Et provinces. Also in Cambodia, Laos. Alternate names: Cuoi, Khamen-Boran, Kui, Kui Souei, Kuoy, Kuuy, Soai, Suai, Suay, Suei, Sui, Suoi.  Dialects: Chang (Suai Chang), Nheu, Kuay. In Cambodia there are four Kuy dialects, based on the use of their word for ‘what’: Kuy Antra (northern Kompong Thom, southern Preah Vihear), Kuy Anthua (central Preah Vihear), Kuy May or Ma’ay (in Kratie), Kuy Mlor (one village in northern Preah Vihear); only older people still speak the last two dialects.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Nheu 
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Lahu

[lhu] 32,000 in Thailand (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Maehongson, Lampang, Tak provinces. 119 known villages. Alternate names: Lohei, Muhso, Muhsur, Musser, Musso, Mussuh.  Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu, Loheirn), Nyi (Red Lahu, Southern Lahu, Musseh Daeng, Luhishi, Luhushi), Shehleh.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Central 
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Lahu Shi

[lhi] 15,000 in Thailand (2007). Refugee camps near Laos border; formerly in Chiang Kham camp, but now in camps near Pua, Nan, or elsewhere. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Central 
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Lamet

[lbn] 100 in Thailand. Lampang, Chiangrai. Alternate names: Kamet, Kha Lamet, Khamet, Lemet.  Dialects: Upper Lamet, Lower Lamet.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic 
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Lawa, Bo Luang

[lwl] 7,000 (2007 Nahhas). Ethnic population: 8,000. North, Chiang Mai Province, Hot District, Bo Luang and Bo Sali subdistricts. 16 villages. Alternate names: Bo Luang Lawa, “Lua”.  Dialects: Bo Luang, Bo Phawaen, Bo Sangae. Not intelligible with Bo Luang Lawa [lcp].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Lawa 
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Lawa, Mae Hong Son

[lcp] 8,000 (2007 Nahhas). Ethnic population: 8,500. Chiang Mai, Mae Hong Son provinces. Alternate names: L’wa, Lava, Lavüa, “Lua” , Luwa, Mae Hong Son Lawa, Mountain Lawa, Omphai Lawa.  Dialects: La-up, Omphai, Northern. Each village has its own distinct accent.. Ban Kok Luang, a village of the Northern group, has the most distinct dialect.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Lawa 
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Lisu

[lis] 30,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol). Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Maehongson, Tak, Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet provinces. Some migrated to northwest Thailand from Myanmar. Alternate names: Li-Hsaw, Li-Shaw, Lisaw, Liso, Lu-Tzu, Southern Lisu, Yao Yen, Yaw Yin, Yaw-Yen, Yeh-Jen.  Dialects: Lu Shi Lisu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Lisu 
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[khb] 83,000 in Thailand (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Widespread in the north; Chiangrai, Payao, Lamphun, Nan, Chiang Kham. Alternate names: Lu, Lue, Pai-I, Pai-Yi, Shui-Pai-I, Tai Lu, Tai Lue, Thai Lu.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Lua’

[prb] 6,280 (2000). Nan Province, east of Pua District; Laos-Thailand border. Alternate names: East Pua Pray, Pray 2.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai 
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Mal

[mlf] 3,500 in Thailand (1982 SIL). Nan Province, east of Pua District and Chiang Kam, valley near northern Laos border. Alternate names: Ht’in, Khatin, T’in, Thin, Tin.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai 
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Malay, Pattani

[mfa] 1,000,000 (2006 Mahidol). North, Songkhla (Singgora) Province, Chana (Chenok) region, south through Pattani, Narathiwat, Yala, Saiburi, Tak Bai. Alternate names: Thai Islam.  Dialects: Different from Kedah Malay [meo] and Standard Malay [zsm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Malay, Satun

[meo]  A few villages near Satun. Isolated. Alternate names: Kedah Malay.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Mlabri

[mra] 300 in Thailand (1982 E. Long). Population total all countries: 324. Phayao, Nan, Phrae, Utaradit, Phitsanuloke, Loey, perhaps other provinces. Laos border area. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Luang, Ma Ku, Mabri, Mla, Mla Bri, Mrabri, Phi Thong, Yellow Leaf, Yumbri.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri 
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Mok

[mqt] 7 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northwest; east northeast of Chiang Mai, on Wang River. Alternate names: Amok, Hsen-Hsum, Muak, Muak Sa-aak.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic  Nearly extinct.
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Moken

[mwt]  South, west coast, Phuket, Phangnga, Krabi, Ranong. Alternate names: Basing, Chau Ko’, Mawken, Salon, Salong, Selong, Selung.  Dialects: Dung, Ja-It, L’be.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen 
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Moklen

[mkm] 1,500 (1984 D. Hogan). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 D. Bradley). South, west coast, Phuket, Phangnga. Alternate names: Chau Pok.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen 
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Mon

[mnw] 108,000 in Thailand (2000). On Myanmar border, Kanchanaburi, Pathum Thani, Rat Buri, Surat Thani, Lopburi, Khorat; north and south of Bangkok. Alternate names: Aleng, Mun, Peguan, Takanoon, Talaing, Taleng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Monic 
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Mpi

[mpz] 900 (Nahhas 2005), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Nahhas 2005). North, Phrae Province, Ban Dong east of provincial capital; Nan Province, Ban Sakoen, east of Phayao Province border. Alternate names: Kaw.  Dialects: Ban Dong, Ban Sakoen. Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen Mpi are mutually intelligible (based on self-report of Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen residents). Lexical similarity: 86% between Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi 
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Nyahkur

[cbn] 1,500 (2006 C. Shimmin), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3000 (Theraphan 1984). Central, northeast side, foot of Petchabun Mountains: Pitsanulok, Petchabun, southwest Chaiyaphum (most), and Nakhon Ratchasima (Khorat) provinces. Alternate names: Chao Dong, “Chaobon” , “Chaobun” , Chaodon, “Chaubun” , Lawa, Niakuol, Niakuoll, Nyakur.  Dialects: Users in Chaiyaphum say they understand Petchabun variety only with difficulty, if at all.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Southern Monic 
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Nyaw

[nyw] 50,000 (Diller 1990). Sakorn Nakorn, Ta Bo’, Nong Khai; Tha Uthen, Nakorn Panom. Alternate names: Jo, Nyo, Nyoh, Yo.  Dialects: Similar to Northeastern Thai [tts] and Luang Prabang Lao.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
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Nyeu

[nyl] 200. Sisaket. Alternate names: Yeu, Yoe.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Yoe 
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Palaung, Pale

[pce] 5,000 in Thailand (1989).  Alternate names: Di-Ang, Ngwe Palaung, Palay, Pale, Silver Palaung, Southern, Ta-Ang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung 
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Phu Thai

[pht] 470,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol). Population total all countries: 833,000. Kham Chai, Nakorn Panom, Ubon, Kalasin, Sakorn Nakorn. Possibly also in China. Also in Laos, United States, Viet Nam. Alternate names: Phutai, Phuu Thai, Putai, Puthai.  Dialects: Little dialect differentiation. Similar to Tai Dam [blt] and Tai Don [twh].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
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Phuan

[phu] 200,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol). Population total all countries: 306,000. Uthai Thani, Phichit, Petchabun, Lopburi, Singburi, Suphanburi, Saraburi, Nakorn Nayok, Phrachinburi, Udon, Loei; 1 village south of Bangkok. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Lao Phuan, Phu Un.  Dialects: Similar to Northern Tai [nod], Tai Dam [blt], Thai Song [soa], Lao [lao].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Phunoi

[pho]  Chiangrai. Alternate names: Phounoy, Phu Noi, Punoi.  Dialects: Black Khoany, White Khoany, Mung, Hwethom, Khaskhong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi 
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Prai

[prt] 20,000 in Thailand. Possibly 3,000 Ban Wen dialect speakers. Population total all countries: 35,000. North, Nan Province, Thung Chang, Chalerm Prakiat, Chiang Klang, Bo Klua, Pua districts. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Thin.  Dialects: Prai, Southern, Ban Wen. The main dialect of Prai has 2 subvarieties referred to as ‘R’ and ‘Y’, which are reportedly minimally different. Ban Wen dialect shares cognates with both Mal [mlf] and Prai, but is unintelligible to Mal speakers.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Prai 
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Pray 3

[pry] 38,800 (2000). Interspersed in Thung Chang and Pua districts among the Mal [mlf]. Dialects: One dialect more distinct. Separate from Phai [prt] and Lua [prb].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai 
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Saek

[skb] 11,000 in Thailand (Johnstone 1993). Northeast, Nakorn Panom. Alternate names: Sek, Tai Sek.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Sek 
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Shan

[shn] 95,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol). Maehongson, Myuang Haeng, Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Maesai, Tak, on northwest border. Alternate names: Great Thai, “Ngeo” , “Ngiao” , “Ngiaw” , “Ngio” , “Ngiow” , Sam, Sha, Tai Luang, Tai Shan, Tai Yay, Thai Yay.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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[sss] 70,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol). Northeast, both sides of Mekong River, Nakorn Panom, Sakorn Nakorn, Nong Kai, Kalasin. 53 villages. Alternate names: Kha So, Thro.  Dialects: So Trong, So Slouy, So Phong, So Makon.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Tai Dam

[blt] 700 in Thailand (2004). Loei Province, Ban Na Pa Nat village. Alternate names: Black Tai, Jinping Dai, Tai Noir, Thai Den.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Nüa

[tdd]  Possibly also in north Viet Nam. Alternate names: Chinese Shan, Dehong Dai, Tai Man, Tai Neua.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Tai Ya

[cuu] 400 in Thailand (2007 E. Dawkins), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000 in Thailand. Chiang Rai Province. Alternate names: Huayaodai, Ya.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
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Thai

[tha] 20,200,000 in Thailand (2000). 400,000 Khorat (1984). 4,704,000 mother-tongue Thai are ethnic Chinese, or 80% of the Chinese (1984). Population total all countries: 20,362,390. Central, centered in Bangkok. Khorat in Ratchasima. Also in Canada, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United States. Alternate names: Central Tai, Siamese, Standard Thai, Thaiklang.  Dialects: Khorat Thai (Korat, Thaikorat).  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Thai Sign Language

[tsq] 51,000 profoundly, prelingually deaf people in Thailand (1997 C.Reilly). 20% of deaf children go to school, where they get the opportunity to learn this language. Major regional centers and Bangkok. Dialects: The first deaf school was established in 1951, with influence from Gallaudet University in the USA. Uses a combination of indigenous signs and American Sign Language [ase]. Before 1950, Chiang Mai and Bangkok had their own separate but related sign languages, and probably other urban areas had their own sign languages, related to present sign languages in parts of Laos and Viet Nam, including Haiphong. The signs used at the deaf school at Tak are reported to be very different.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Thai Song

[soa] 32,300 (2000). Kanchanaburi, Phetburi, Pitsanulok, Nakorn Sawaan, Nakorn Pathom, Suphanburi. Alternate names: Lao Song, Lao Song Dam, Song.  Dialects: Only slight dialect differences. Similar to Tai Dam [blt].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Thai, Northeastern

[tts] 15,000,000 (1983 SIL). At least 1,000,000 in Bangkok. Kalerng has a few thousand speakers (1990 A. Diller). Northeast; 17 provinces. Kalerng in Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom. Alternate names: Isaan, Isan, Issan, Thai Isaan.  Dialects: Northern Isan, Central Isan (Kalerng, Kaleung, Kaloeng), Southern Isan, Korat. The Korat dialect is quite different, and may be a separate language.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
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Thai, Northern

[nod] 6,000,000 in Thailand (1983 SIL). Population total all countries: 6,009,400. Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Lampang, Maehongson, Hot, Nan, Phayao, Phrae, Uttaradit, Tak provinces. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Kam Mu’ang, Kammüang, Kammyang, Khon, Khon Meang, Khon Myang, La Nya, Lan Na, Lanatai, Lanna, Mu’ang, Mung, Myang, Northern Thai, Payap, Phayap, Phyap, Tai Nya, Tai Yon, Tai Yuan, Western Laotian, “Yuan”.  Dialects: Nan, Bandu, Tai Wang. Nan dialect is more distinct.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Thai, Southern

[sou] 4,500,000 (2006 Mahidol). 1,500,000 to 3,000,000 or more Muslim Tai (2001). Chumphon, Nakorn Srithammarat; 14 provinces total. Muslim Tai in provinces of Chumporn, Nakorn Srithammarat, Phattalung, Songkhla, Ranong, Phanga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, Satun. Alternate names: Dambro, Pak Tai, Pak Thai, Paktay.  Dialects: Tak Bai (Tai Tak Bai), Thai Malay (Tai Islam). A group of dialects more distantly related to other Tai languages. Border dialects are quite distinct from others.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Southern 
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Tonga

[tnz] Ethnic population: 300 (2000 D. Bradley). South, 2 areas. Also in Malaysia (Peninsular). Alternate names: Mos.  Dialects: Satun. Probably similar to Kensiu [kns].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Tonga 
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Ugong

[ugo] 80 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 500. Kanchanaburi, Uthai Thani, Suphanburi. Alternate names: ’Ugong, Gong, Lawa, Ugawng.  Dialects: Kok Chiang, Suphanburi. Not closely related to other languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern 
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Urak Lawoi’

[urk] 3,000 (1984 D. Hogan). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 D. Bradley). South, west coast, Phuket and Langta islands. Alternate names: Chaw Talay, Chawnam, Lawoi, Lawta, Orak Lawoi’.  Dialects: Aboriginal Malays who speak a unique Malay language.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Yong

[yno] 12,600 (2000). Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Lamphun. Possibly in Muang Yong, north Myanmar. Alternate names: Nyong.  Dialects: Phonology similar to Lü [khb].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Unclassified 
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Yoy

[yoy] 5,000 in Thailand (1990 A. Diller). Population total all countries: 6,000. Sakorn Nakorn. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Dioi, Jui, Yoi, Yooi, Yooy.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern 
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