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English

A language of United Kingdom

ISO 639-3eng

Population  58,100,000 in United Kingdom (2005 Crystal). Population total all countries: 328,008,138.
Region  Also in American Samoa, Andorra, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Australia, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Botswana, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, China, Cook Islands, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Finland, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guyana, Honduras, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia (Peninsular), Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Montserrat, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Zealand, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Pitcairn, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United States, U.S. Virgin Islands, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Language map  Ireland and United Kingdom
Dialects  Cockney, Scouse, Geordie, West Country, East Anglia, Birmingham (Brummy, Brummie), South Wales, Edinburgh, Belfast, Cornwall, Cumberland, Central Cumberland, Devonshire, East Devonshire, Dorset, Durham, Bolton Lancashire, North Lancashire, Radcliffe Lancashire, Northumberland, Norfolk, Newcastle Northumberland, Tyneside Northumberland, Lowland Scottish, Somerset, Sussex, Westmorland, North Wiltshire, Craven Yorkshire, North Yorkshire, Sheffield Yorkshire, West Yorkshire. Many local English varieties around the world. Lexical similarity: 60% with German, 27% with French, 24% with Russian.
Classification  Indo-European, Germanic, West, English
Language use  National language.
Language development  Fully developed. Bible: 1382–2002.
Writing system  Latin script.
Comments  SVO; prepositions; genitives after noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals before noun heads; question word initial; word order distinguishes subject, object, indirect objects, given and new information, topic and comment; active and passive; causative; comparative; consonant and vowel clusters; nontonal. Christian.

Also spoken in:

American Samoa

Language name   English
Population  1,250 in American Samoa (1970 census).
Language use  Official language. 15,050 mainly L2 speakers.
 

Anguilla

Language name   English
Population  950 in Anguilla (2004).
Language use  Official language.
 

Antigua and Barbuda

Language name   English
Population  9,000 in Antigua and Barbuda.
Language use  Official language.
 

Aruba

Language name   English
Population  3,000 in Aruba.
Dialects  Aruba English.
 

Australia

Language name   English
Population  17,400,000 in Australia (2006).
Dialects  Australian Standard English, Aboriginal English, Neo-Nyungar (Noonga, Noongar, Noogar).
Language use  National language.
Comments  Minor regional dialect differences. Neo-Nyungar is the community dialect of the Nyungar people.
 

Bahamas

Language name   English
Population  49,300 in Bahamas (2004).
Language use  Official language.
 

Barbados

Language name   English
Population  13,000 in Barbados (1995).
Language use  National language.
 

Belize

Language name   English
Population  60,000 in Belize (2006).
Language use  Official language. 55,998 L2 speakers in Belize (1991 census). Education, government, commerce.
 

Bermuda

Language name   English
Population  58,800 in Bermuda (1989).
Dialects  Bermudan English.
Language use  Official language.
Comments  Colloquial English may not be a creole but a regional variety of uncreolized English.
 

Botswana

Language name   English
Population  4,000 in Botswana (2006).
Alternate names  Sekgoa
Language use  Official language. International trade, the medium of western influences, language of instruction from fifth grade, written language, official purposes. Taught from the beginning of primary school as a required subject.
 

British Indian Ocean Territory

Language name   English
Population  3,500 in British Indian Ocean Territory (2004).
Language use  Official language.
Comments  The indigenous population no longer resides in the islands. Current residents include members of the USA military, a small detachment of British officials, and support staff, mainly of Mauritian and Philippine origin.
 

British Virgin Islands

Language name   English
Population  2,000 in British Virgin Islands (1998).
Language use  Official language.
 

Brunei

Language name   English
Population  8,000 in Brunei.
Language use  National language. Government, education, and by the educated as L1 or L2.
 

Cambodia

Language name   English
Language use  Language of wider communication. Replacing French as L2, especially in Phnom Penh.
 

Cameroon

Language name   English
Region  Mainly South West and North West provinces.
Language use  Official language.
 

Canada

Language name   English
Population  20,000,000 in Canada (2001 census). 820,000 L1 speakers in Quebec (1995 Statistics Canada); plus another 1,500,000 in Quebec whose L1 or L2 is English (1995 Statistics Canada).
Dialects  Newfoundland English.
Language use  Official language.
 

Cayman Islands

Language name   English
Population  20,000 in Cayman Islands (2002).
Dialects  Cayman Islands English.
Language use  National language.
Comments  Colloquial English seemingly borrowed creole features similar to Jamaica and Central America without undergoing creolization (John Holm 1989:479–480). Structurally similar to a creole language. May be similar to Belize Kriol [bzj]. Agriculturalists: cotton.
 

China

Language name   English
Population  59,000 in China (1993).
Region  Mainly in Hong Kong.
 

Cook Islands

Language name   English
Population  1,000 in Cook Islands (Crystal 2005).
Language map  Cook Islands
Language use  Official language.
 

Dominica

Language name   English
Population  10,000 in Dominica (2004).
Dialects  Dominican English.
Language use  Official language.
 

Dominican Republic

Language name   English
Population  8,000 in Dominican Republic (Holm 1989).
Region  Samaná Peninsula, northeastern Dominican Republic.
Dialects  Samaná English.
Language use  Also use Spanish or Haitian [hat].
Comments  A community of descendants of ex-USA slaves settled in 1824. It is reported that there was a settlement of African slaves here in the early 1500s. There are features of creolization and archaic Black English.
 

Eritrea

Language name   English
Language use  National language.
Comments  Language of higher education and many technical fields.
 

Ethiopia

Language name   English
Population  1,990 in Ethiopia (1994 census).
Language use  Official language. 169,726 L2 users. Language of higher education, many technical fields, and international communication.
 

Falkland Islands

Language name   English
Population  1,990 in Falkland Islands (Johnstone 1993).
Language use  National language.
 

Fiji

Language name   English
Population  6,000 in Fiji (Crystal 2005). An additional 10,276 or 1.8% of population (1976 census) are part-European, and speak English and Fijian.
Language use  Official language. Also used by many urban Chinese (4,652 in 1976), Rotuman, occasionally by Indians, rarely by Fijians (P. Geraghty 1981). Reportedly a Fijian Pidgin English. Main language of commerce, education, government.
 

Gambia

Language name   English
Population  1,000 in Gambia (2004).
Language use  Official language.
 

Ghana

Language name   English
Language use  Official language. 1,000,000 L2 speakers in Ghana (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977).
 

Gibraltar

Language name   English
Population  3,300 in Gibraltar (Johnstone 1993).
Dialects  Yanito.
Language use  Official language.
Comments  Yanito is spoken by most Gibraltarians among themselves. A variety of English with a strong Spanish influence, with over 500 words coming from Genoese (Ligurian) and Hebrew.
 

Grenada

Language name   English
Population  750 in Grenada (2004).
Dialects  Grenadian English.
Language use  Official language.
Comments  Post-creole English with French Creole influences (M. Alleyne).
 

Guadeloupe

Language name   English
Population  200 in Guadeloupe (2002).
Region  St. Barthélemy Island.
Dialects  Gustavia English (St. Barth English).
Language use  Also use French.
Comments  English with some creole influence.
 

Guam

Language name   English
Population  58,000 in Guam (D. Crystal 2005).
Language use  National language.
Comments  USA military and dependents.
 

Guyana

Language name   English
Dialects  Guyanese English.
Language use  National language.
Comments  Spoken as L1 by some Blacks and some Hindustanis.
 

Honduras

Language name   English
Population  31,500 in Honduras (2001). 22,500 Bay Islands English speakers on the north coast.
Region  Bay Islands (Guanaja, Roatán, Utila), and large cities along north mainland coast.
Language map  El Salvador and Honduras
Dialects  Bay Islands English.
Comments  Some creole influence.
 

India

Language name   English
Population  179,000 in India (2006).
Language use  National language. 11,021,610 L2 speakers (1961 census).
Comments  Neither British nor American English but a distinct Indian dialect with its own unique vocabulary and style.
 

Ireland

Language name   English
Population  3,750,000 in Ireland (2005 Crystal).
Language map  Ireland and United Kingdom
Dialects  South Hiberno English, North Hiberno English.
Language use  National language.
 

Israel

Language name   English
Population  100,000 in Israel (1993).
Alternate names  Anglit
Language use  Auxiliary official language.
 

Jamaica

Language name   English
Language use  National language.
 

Kenya

Language name   English
Population  24,300 in Kenya (2006), increasing. More than 65% of total population of Kenya use English.
Language use  Official language. GIDS 1. Official language in most transactions. All ages. Positive attitude. Mainly L2 speakers in Kenya.
Language development  Taught in primary and secondary schools.
 

Kiribati

Language name   English
Population  490 in Kiribati (2000).
Language use  Official language.
 

Lebanon

Language name   English
Population  3,300 in Lebanon (2004).
Language use  Used to some extent since American University of Beirut founding in 1866. Many English language publications. Not spoken on the street or in Lebanese homes.
 

Lesotho

Language name   English
Language map 
Language use  Official language.
 

Liberia

Language name   English
Population  70,000 in Liberia (2006).
Language map  Liberia, reference number 8
Dialects  Liberian Standard English.
Language use  Official language.
 

Madagascar

Language name   English
Language use  Official language.
 

Malawi

Language name   English
Population  16,000 in Malawi (1993).
Language use  Official language.
 

Malaysia (Peninsular)

Language name   English
Population  380,000 in Malaysia (Crystal 2005), increasing.
Language use  Nearly all domains. All ages. Positive attitude.
Language development  Taught in primary and secondary schools.
 

Malta

Language name   English
Population  2,400 in Malta (Johnstone 1993).
Language use  Official language.
 

Marshall Islands

Language name   English
Language use  Official language.
 

Mauritius

Language name   English
Population  3,000 in Mauritius (Johnstone 1993).
Language use  Official language. Not widely known. Courts, road signs.
Language development  Taught in secondary schools.
 

Micronesia

Language name   English
Population  5,340 in Micronesia (2000).
Language use  Official language.
 

Montserrat

Language name   English
Population  100 in Montserrat (2004).
Language use  National language.
 

Namibia

Language name   English
Population  10,200 in Namibia (2006).
Language use  Official language. Not understood or spoken by everyone.
 

Nauru

Language name   English
Population  710 in Nauru (2000).
Language use  National language. 7,254 including L2 users (1979 Government figures).
 

Netherlands Antilles

Language name   English
Population  1,800 in Netherlands Antilles (2004).
Region  Saba and Statia; some use on other islands.
Language use  Gaining importance.
Comments  Post-creole English is dialect used.
 

New Zealand

Language name   English
Population  3,210,000 in New Zealand (1987).
Language use  Official language.
 

Nigeria

Language name   English
Language use  Official language. L2 speakers in Nigeria: 1,000,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Used in government and education.
 

Niue

Language name   English
Population  78 in Niue (2004).
Language use  National language. 2,082 L2 speakers in Niue.
 

Norfolk Island

Language name   English
Population  1,680 in Norfolk Island (1980 Government report).
Language use  Official language.
 

Northern Mariana Islands

Language name   English
Language use  National language.
 

Pakistan

Language name   English
Language use  Official language. Mainly L2 speakers in Pakistan.
 

Palau

Language name   English
Language use  Official language.
 

Papua New Guinea

Language name   English
Population  50,000 in Papua New Guinea (1987).
Language use  Official language.
Language development  Taught in primary schools.
 

Philippines

Language name   English
Population  3,400,000 in Philippines (2000 census).
Language use  Official language. Language of wider communication. 52% of the population said they could speak it as L2 (1980 census).
 

Pitcairn

Language name   English
Language use  Official language.
 

Puerto Rico

Language name   English
Population  100,000 in Puerto Rico (2005 Crystal).
Language use  National language. 376,371 L2 users (1970 census).
 

Rwanda

Language name   English
Language use  Official language. Mainly L2 speakers in Rwanda. There may be more users of English than of French.
 

Saint Helena

Language name   English
Population  5,400 in Saint Helena (2004).
Language use  National language.
 

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Language name   English
Population  200 in Saint Kitts and Nevis (2004).
Language use  National language.
 

Saint Lucia

Language name   English
Population  1,600 in Saint Lucia (2004).
Dialects  Saint Lucian English.
Language use  Official language.
Comments  An emerging English vernacular on Saint Lucia in a rural area is significantly restructured, heavily French Creole [acf] influenced, English lexicon (1998 P. Garrett).
 

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Language name   English
Population  190 in Saint Pierre and Miquelon (1967 census).
 

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Language name   English
Population  400 in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2004).
Language use  National language.
 

Samoa

Language name   English
Population  200 in Samoa (2004).
Language use  Official language.
 

Seychelles

Language name   English
Population  1,600 in Seychelles (1971 census).
Language use  Official language.
Comments  Principal language of the schools.
 

Sierra Leone

Language name   English
Language use  Official language. Used in administration, law, education, commerce.
 

Singapore

Language name   English
Population  665,000 in Singapore (2000 census).
Language use  Official language. L2 users (literate in English) are 71% of population (2000 census). Ethnic groups which use English: Chinese 154,000, 68%; European and Eurasian 34,000, 15%; Indian 32,000, 14%; Malay 6,000, 3%. Chinese varieties and Tamil [tam] also used at home.
 

Solomon Islands

Language name   English
Language use  National language.
 

Somalia

Language name   English
Language use  Official language. Mostly north.
 

South Africa

Language name   English
Population  3,670,000 in South Africa (2006 census).
Language map  Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland, reference number 2
Language use  Official language. The main means of communication in urban areas. Many second-generation people from India, Portugal, Germany, and Greece speak English as L1.
 

Sri Lanka

Language name   English
Population  10,000 (Crystal 2005).
Language use  Language of wider communication. Used in government.
 

Swaziland

Language name   English
Population  7,500 in Swaziland (2006).
Language map 
Language use  Official language.
Comments  Taught in all government and private schools.
 

Tanzania

Language name   English
Language use  Official language. L2 speakers in Tanzania: 1,500,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Used by some Asian residents as L1.
Language development  Taught in primary schools. Medium of instruction in secondary schools and universities.
 

Tokelau

Language name   English
Population  40 in Tokelau (2004).
Language use  National language. Used in schools.
 

Tonga

Language name   English
Language use  Official language.
 

Trinidad and Tobago

Language name   English
Population  2,600 in Trinidad and Tobago (2004).
Language use  Official language.
 

Turks and Caicos Islands

Language name   English
Population  920 in Turks and Caicos Islands (2004), decreasing.
Language use  Official language. Shifting toward a variety of Standard Caribbean English.
 

Uganda

Language name   English
Language use  Official language. L2 speakers: 1,000,000 in Uganda (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Used in primary and secondary schools, law courts.
 

United States

Language name   English
Population  215,000,000 in United States (2000 census).
Dialects  African American Vernacular English (AAVE).
Comments  Many regional and social dialects.
 

U.S. Virgin Islands

Language name   English
Population  8,410 in U.S. Virgin Islands (1970 census).
Language use  Official language.
 

Vanuatu

Language name   English
Population  1,900 in Vanuatu (1995).
Language use  Official language. L1 speakers are from the United Kingdom.
 

Zambia

Language name   English
Population  110,000 in Zambia (Crystal 2005).
Language use  Official language. Spoken as L1 mostly by Europeans. A small minority of Zambian Africans speak it as a L1. Used as L2. Language of Parliament. Home, education, business. All ages. Positive attitude.
Language development  Taught in primary and secondary schools.
 

Zimbabwe

Language name   English
Population  250,000 in Zimbabwe (Crystal 2005).
Language use  Official language. Spoken by most Europeans and an increasing number of Africans. Used in all or most education.