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Garhwali

A language of India

ISO 639-3gbm

Population  2,920,000 (2000).
Region  Uttarakhand; Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Dehra Dun, Rudraprayag districts; Himachal Pradesh; Tehri and Uttarkash, Jaunpuri and Ravai.
Alternate names   Gadhavali, Gadhawala, Gadwahi, Gashwali, Girwali, Godauli, Gorwali, Gurvali, Pahari Garhwali
Dialects  Srinagari, Tehri (Gangapariya), Badhani, Dessaulya, Lohbya, Majh-Kumaiya, Bhattiani, Nagpuriya, Rathi, Salani (Pauri), Ravai, Bangani, Parvati, Jaunpuri, Gangadi (Uttarkashi), Chandpuri. Kumaoni [kfy] is most similar language; Jaunsari [jns] is sometimes referred to as a dialect of Garhwali, but most say they cannot understand it. Parvati dialect also reportedly not intelligible; Srinagari is literary standard; Pauri generally regarded as the ‘sweetest’; Srinagari and Pauri are very similar. Lexical similarity: 53%–84% among dialects; 54–69% with Hindi, 55%–66% with Kumaoni. The divergent dialect varieties of Bangani, Parvati, and Ravai are no more similar to Western Pahari varieties than to Garhwali.
Classification  Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Garhwali
Language use  Vigorous. Home, village. All ages. Positive attitude. Also use Hindi.
Language development  Literacy rate in L2: 72% for Uttarakhand. Older women lack literacy. Poetry. Magazines. Radio programs. NT: 1827–1994.
Writing system  Devanagari script.
Comments  Jaunpuri and Ravai dialects are culturally similar to Jaunsari and distinct from Garhwali. Castes are Brahmin, Rajput, Harijan. SOV. Agriculturalists. Hindu, syncretism with traditional religion.