||600,000 (1986 M. Forman). 100,000 to 200,000 with low proficiency in Standard English and near Standard English (1986 M. Forman). Another 100,000 on the USA mainland.
||Hawaiian Islands, USA mainland (especially the west coast, Las Vegas, and Orlando).
United States of America, Alaska and Hawaii
||Hawai’i Pidgin, HCE, Pidgin
||The basilect is barely intelligible with Standard English (McKaughan and Forman 1982).
||Creole, English based, Pacific
||Vigorous use by 100,000 to 200,000. Native speech of a large number of those born or brought up in Hawaii, regardless of racial origin. Continuum of speech from distinct creole to Standard English of Hawaii. Different speakers control different spans along the continuum; to some whose only form of verbal communication is the creole. Some communication problems at university level. Many L2 speakers. Used in courts by officers, jurors, plaintiffs, defendants, witnesses. Creative writing in it in some schools. A growing body of serious literature. Used in schools, personal letters, local commerce, a few songs. All ages. Accepted by many as important part of local culture, a distinctive local language; but looked down on by others. Some official acknowledgement of it in print and public discussion, Miranda rights. 50% of children in Hawaii do not speak English as L1 when entering school. English is used in school. Most songs are in Hawaiian or English. Other languages used are Hakka [hak], Yue Chinese [yue], Japanese, Korean, Tagalog [tgl], Ilocano [ilo], Cebuano [ceb], Hiligaynon [hil], Portuguese, Spanish, or Samoan [smo].
||Literacy rate in L1: 66%–75%. Literacy rate in L2: 66%–75%. Radio programs. TV. Grammar. NT: 2000.
||Fishermen; agriculturalists; animal husbandry; white and blue-collar workers; tourism; military; construction and maintenance workers. Christian, Hawaiian traditional religion, Buddhist, syncretism.