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Khakas

A language of Russian Federation (Asia)

ISO 639-3kjh

Population  20,000 in Russian Federation (2007 SIL), decreasing. Stable population; noticeable urbanization. Population total all countries: 20,010. Ethnic population: 75,600 in the Russian Federation.
Region  Khakassia (Khakasia) Republic, north of Altai Mountains; Krasnoyarsk Territory, north of Khakassia Republic; Tuva Republic; scattered throughout the federation. Also in China.
Language map  Western Asian Russia, reference number 16
Alternate names   Abakan Tatar, Khakhas, Khakhass, Hakass, Xakas, Yenisei, Yennisej Tatar
Dialects  Sagai (Saghai, Sagaj), Kachina (Kacha, Kaca, Khaas, Xaas), Kyzyl (Khyzyzl, Xyzyl), Shor. Nearly extinct: Beltir, Koibal (Khobal, Xoibal), Kamass (Kamassian).
Classification  Altaic, Turkic, Northern
Language use  Struggle to maintain culture and language. Home, community. All ages. Positive, especially in urban areas. Also use Russian at work, school, public transport, government, and most written communication.
Language development  Literacy rate in L1: 50% (2007 SIL estimate). Literacy rate in L2: 95% in Russian. Khakas books often self-published and difficult to obtain. Medium in a few schools, a subject in about 100 primary schools. A subject in selected secondary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1995–2007.
Writing system  Cyrillic script.
Comments  Animal husbandry: sheep, goats, cattle, horses; industrialists. Traditional religion, Christian.

Also spoken in:

China

Language name   Khakas
Population  10 in China (1982 census). Ethnic population: 875.
Region  Heilongjiang Province, Fuyu County, north of Qiqihar.
Language map  China
Alternate names  Abakan Tatar, Khakhas, Khakhass, Yenisei Tatar
Dialects  Sagai, Beltir, Kacha, Kyzyl, Shor, Kamassian.
Language use  In 1980s, only about 10 very old people were fluent, others used some words, but mainly spoke Mongolian or Chinese. Young people are monolingual in Chinese.
Comments  Classified as Kyrghyz nationality. People came from the Altay Mountains in the Russian Federation in 1761. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.