Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Americas > Nicaragua > Sumo-Mayangna


A language of Nicaragua

ISO 639-3sum
This ISO 639-3 code has been retired after the publication of Ethnologue, 16th edition. For more information, see the code change history documentation.

Population  6,700 in Nicaragua (1982 Mesoamerica). Population total all countries: 7,400.
Region  Upriver locations from Prinzapolka River in the south into Honduras in the north. Also in Honduras.
Language map  Nicaragua
Alternate names   Soumo, Sumo, Sumo Tawahka, Sumoo, Sumu, Taguaca, Woolwa
Dialects  Panamahka, Nicaraguan Tawahka, Ulwa, Bawihka, Kukra. A distinct dialect is spoken in Honduras.
Classification  Misumalpan
Language use  Also use Mískito [miq] or Spanish.
Language development  Literary development has been in the Tawahka dialect. Bible: 1999.
Comments  SOV. Hunter-gatherers; fishermen; swidden agriculturalists: manioc.

Also spoken in:


Language name   Sumo Tawahka
Population  700 in Honduras (1997 SIL). Ethnic population: 800 to 1,000 in Honduras (Rivas 1993).
Region  Banks of the Patuca River, Gracias a Dios and parts of Olancho departments.
Language map  El Salvador and Honduras
Alternate names  Soumo, Sumo, Sumoo, Sumu
Language use  All ages.
Language development  Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%.
Comments  ‘Sumo’ not used in Honduras. In Honduras the Sumo increasingly also use Mískito [miq]; rapidly becoming culturally integrated into the Mískito community.
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